Police forces under pressure to issue officers with body-worn video cameras face an “administrative nightmare” in storing and processing the resulting footage, it was warned today.
Pressure is mounting on forces to equip all officers with lapel-worn cameras in the wake of the shooting of Mark Duggan in Tottenham, London, and the “plebgate” row in which words spoken by Downing Street police officers to MP Andrew Mitchell were disputed.
But the result would be hours of footage which needs to be stored, processed and analysed – and forces could find themselves swamped with digital data.
In May 2013 Home Secretary Theresa May called for all officers walking the beat to wear body-mounted cameras, telling the Police Federation’s annual conference in Bournemouth: “Body-worn cameras can help improve the collection of evidence.”
Met Police Commissioner Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe has said armed officers will trial cameras for armed officers as a result of the Duggan shooting – and several police forces are already preparing to go further by widening their deployment to include all officers on the front line.
Staffordshire Police are to become the first to supply all PCs with video cameras to record high-definition and sound, buying 500 devices at a cost of more than £300,000.
And this week Sir Stephen House, Chief Constable of Police Scotland, told the Scotsman on Sunday that a roll-out of body-worn cameras to all officers in Scotland was likely. They have already been trialled in Aberdeen and Paisley.
The devices have been praised as they can save court preparation time, often force an early guilty plea and can help make sure vexatious complaints about officers’ conduct can be quickly dealt with and dismissed.
Currently, each police force deploying the technology sets its own rules for how it is used – but the College of Policing, which sets standards and issues guidance for the policing profession, is carrying out a study assessing the impact of body-worn video.
This could lead to the systematic and standardised deployment of cameras, potentially leading to all forces using it and producing a huge increase in the number of devices used and the amount of footage gathered.
Footage recorded by the devices needs to be processed, meaning forces potentially face the headache of dealing with thousands of hours worth of footage collected by officers.
Peter Franklin is business manager of Scyron, a technology firm which works extensively with police forces and whose video analysis software was used by prosecutors to help secure a conviction in the case of Daniel Pelka, who was murdered by his mother and partner.
Peter said: “Body worn video cameras are a very effective tool in gathering evidence and it seems inevitable that further down the line, all forces will be using the technology in some form.
“All that footage has to be stored, processed and analysed where needed if it is to be used effectively. That is a huge job for police forces and those we are talking to have concerns about how they are going to be able to cope with the amount of video they are going to have on their hands.
“For example, even if only 10,000 of the Metropolitan Police’s 35,000 officers are on duty and videoing an eight-hour shift, that’s 80,000 hours of video a day to process. It’s potentially an administrative nightmare for police forces and there’s a real concern about whether they will be able to cope.”
Scyron, based in Birmingham, is a leading provider of software used by several police forces to process data.
Among its products is video analysis software that saves police officers time sifting through footage by automatically processing the clips and identifying incidents that may be of interest. For example, it can be told to scan a particular area of the footage to identify changes, such as a car being broken into.
Scyron has included this technology in a new piece of software aimed at helping forces deal with the amount of footage produced by officers using body-worn video.
The application, called Scyron Media Manager, enables users to effectively and automatically capture, manage and store digital evidence from body-worn video – for example footage taken from smartphones and vehicles – in a way that complies with regulations including the Data Protection Act and Home Office guidelines.
When an officer has made an arrest and captured evidence on video the software enables them to download the footage to a central system quickly and efficiently. That footage can instantly transferred to DVD so it can be used in interview – reducing the number of times when a suspect must be released from police custody so video can be processed.
The software also automatically produced a standard format witness statement to further reduce the time spent on administration.
Scyron’s video analysis products are already used by several police forces and the firm is preparing for a rush as forces seek solutions to cope with the added burden of dealing with video.
Peter added: “Body worn video is an immensely powerful tool and used properly it can have huge benefits, not least in saving time for police forces in gathering evidence.
“Using our software a suspect who has been arrested could be interviewed in the back of a police car and the interview recorded on its in-built camera. That could then be wirelessly sent to a central database and processed automatically. By the time the suspect is brought back into the police station, the interview and any accompanying video evidence can be ready for officers to review.
“It is vitally important that police forces have the right systems in place to ensure video evidence becomes a benefit and not a burden. Its use has the potential to transform policing for the better as long as forces make sure that they are able to harness it properly.”
Scyron already works extensively with police forces and agencies in the UK including West Midlands Police, the Metropolitan Police and the Serious and Organised Crime Agency (SOCA).
It has developed a range of software including:
Video Inspector – video analysis software which can analyse 24 hours of footage in around 40 minutes, identifying potential incidents of interest for police to review
Mosaic – enables forces to take video and pixilate out faces or numberplates for use in witness appeals
Smart extractor – takes video footage from any source – for example from CCTV and smartphones – and enable it to be used in a single system
Media presenter – software used by prosecutors to take pictures, documents and videos in any format and use them to create a project to build and present a case in court
Scyron is part of Basingstoke-based Centerprise International, which is one of the largest and most respected IT providers in the UK and delivers large-scale IT projects in the corporate, education and government sectors.
Will covid-19 end the dominance of the big four?
By Campbell Shaw, Head of Bank Partnerships, Cardlytics
Across the country, we are readjusting to refreshed restrictions on our daily lives, as we continue to navigate the seemingly unnavigable waters of the coronavirus pandemic.
For all of us, the pandemic has made life anything but ‘normal’, and with social distancing here to stay, it will remain so for a long time yet. These paradigm shifts have impacted every aspect of life, including how we bank.
Focus is already turning to the role the big banks are playing through the pandemic, with experts fearing the economic downturn will only cement the position of the ‘big four’ traditional players.
But has the pandemic shaken the dominance of the big banks? Or has it simply confirmed their position?
Turning to tech
There’s no doubt that the pandemic has caused the big players to be challenged like never before on tech.
Classically slower to adapt to developments in the market, increased demand for online services and contactless payment systems have turbocharged the big banks’ need to act like a challenger.
And they have, agilely adapting to this new normal by updating systems and services to ensure customers’ safety and financial security come first.
Scale is staying power
In these new times, the power and influence of the big players has also been proven.
The big four have provided the lion’s share of the government-backed loans designed to help small and medium-sized businesses through the pandemic. It has also been the big four offering the majority of payment holidays for customers on their mortgages, debt and credit cards.
However, it’s important to note that their power to retain customers goes much deeper than their market share.
Our switching study, which looked at the reasons behind customer switching, found that even before the pandemic, despite nearly half (48%) of UK adults admitting they know they aren’t getting the best deal with their current bank, half have never switched their current account.
That’s often because of the value they can provide to their customers, through personalized service, offers and rewards that keeps customers engaged and invested in them. As brands increasingly look to
Focus on finances
As the world becomes a more financially insecure place, due to COVID-19, there’s been a marked shift towards more attention on finances, which has affected not only the business functions of banks but has impacted banking relationships with customers at their core.
From deals to savings, customers now more than ever are re-evaluating how they bank, and how they manage their money.
The impact on the big four is more pressure than ever to keep up with the best interest rates and deals. That can be difficult for a big, and often slower moving, organisation and could be a stumbling block for them in the months to come.
However, on the plus side, the big four can lean into their sophisticated loyalty schemes, using offers and deals from partner brands to demonstrate value to customers and build up their loyalty.
Engaging with purpose
The pandemic has seen many banks acting with a renewed sense of purpose. Banking has had to be more adaptable than ever before – fitting the needs of those who may be feeling financial stress or dealing with unprecedented challenges.
And showing a little heart can go a long way when it comes to increasing customer loyalty and boosting a bank’s reputation.
Over the last months, traditional banks have been quick to adapt their products and services, in response to the demands and challenges their customers have been face.
No doubt, continuing to build more meaningful, supportive and engaging customer relationships, whether it is online or on the newly reopened high-street, will be critical to banks’ dominance as we look to the future.
Bring on the challengers
However, with their meteoric rise ahead of lockdown, we must keep an eye on the challengers, who still have the potential to knock traditional players off their pedestal.
We found that more than three million people in the UK opened a current account with a new bank last year. Our research found that traditional banks made up well over half (69%) of the accounts UK adults switched from, while newer digital challenger banks such as Monzo, Starling Bank and Revolut made up 25% of current accounts switched to. And these fast moving, fast growing challengers may see further growth if traditional banks are stifled by the declining high-street.
What’s more, the high street could yet prove to be the Achilles heel of the bigger players, as shifting budgets and increasing overheads in the context of a more online banking experience could see more big players struggle with their physical presence, making way for the digital challengers to thrive.
So, while the dominant players may have the lead, they should still keep an eye on the challengers as we look ahead to the next, uncertain, six months.
To take the nation’s financial pulse, we must go digital
By Pete Bulley, Director of Product, Aire
The last six months have brought the precarious financial situation of many millions across the world into sharper focus than ever before. But while the figures may be unprecedented, the underlying problem is not a new one – and it requires serious attention as well as action from lenders to solve it.
Research commissioned by Aire in February found that eight out of ten adults in the UK would be unable to cover essential monthly spending should their income drop by 20%. Since then, Covid-19 has increased the number without employment by 730,000 people between July and March, and saw 9.6 million furloughed as part of the job retention scheme.
The figures change daily but here are a few of the most significant: one in six mortgage holders had opted to take a payment holiday by June. Lenders had granted almost a million credit card payment deferrals, provided 686,500 payment holidays on personal loans, and offered 27 million interest-free overdrafts.
The pressure is growing for lenders and with no clear return to normal in sight, we are unfortunately likely to see levels of financial distress increase exponentially as we head into winter. Recent changes to the job retention scheme are signalling the start of the withdrawal of government support.
The challenge for lenders
Lenders have been embracing digital channels for years. However, we see it usually prioritised at acquisition, with customer management neglected in favour of getting new customers through the door. Once inside, even the most established of lenders are likely to fall back on manual processes when it comes to managing existing customers.
It’s different for fintechs. Unburdened by legacy systems, they’ve been able to begin with digital to offer a new generation of consumers better, more intuitive service. Most often this is digitised, mobile and seamless, and it’s spreading across sectors. While established banks and service providers are catching up — offering mobile payments and on-the-go access to accounts — this part of their service is still lagging. Nowhere is this felt harder than in customer management.
Time for a digital solution in customer management
With digital moving higher up the agenda for lenders as a result of the pandemic, many still haven’t got their customer support properly in place to meet demand. Manual outreach is still relied upon which is both heavy on resource and on time.
Lenders are also grappling with regulation. While many recognise the moral responsibility they have for their customers, they are still blind to the new tools available to help them act effectively and at scale.
In 2015, the FCA released its Fair Treatment of Customers regulations requiring that ‘consumers are provided with clear information and are kept appropriately informed before, during and after the point of sale’.
But when the individual financial situation of customers is changing daily, never has this sentiment been more important (or more difficult) for lenders to adhere to. The problem is simple: the traditional credit scoring methods relied upon by lenders are no longer dynamic enough to spot sudden financial change.
The answer lies in better, and more scalable, personalised support. But to do this, lenders need rich, real-time insight so that lenders can act effectively, as the regulator demands. It needs to be done at scale and it needs to be done with the consumer experience in mind, with convenience and trust high on the agenda.
Placing the consumer at the heart of the response
To better understand a customer, inviting them into a branch or arranging a phone call may seem the most obvious solution. However, health concerns mean few people want to see their providers face-to-face, and fewer staff are in branches, not to mention the cost and time outlay by lenders this would require.
Call centres are not the answer either. Lack of trained capacity, cost and the perceived intrusiveness of calls are all barriers. We know from our own consumer research at Aire that customers are less likely to engage directly with their lenders on the phone when they feel payment demands will be made of them.
If lenders want reliable, actionable insight that serves both their needs (and their customers) they need to look to digital.
Asking the person who knows best – the borrower
So if the opportunity lies in gathering information directly from the consumer – the solution rests with first-party data. The reasons we pioneer this approach at Aire are clear: firstly, it provides a truly holistic view of each customer to the lender, a richer picture that covers areas that traditional credit scoring often misses, including employment status and savings levels. Secondly, it offers consumers the opportunity to engage directly in the process, finally shifting the balance in credit scoring into the hands of the individual.
With the right product behind it, this can be achieved seamlessly and at scale by lenders. Pulse from Aire provides a link delivered by SMS or email to customers, encouraging them to engage with Aire’s Interactive Virtual Interview (IVI). The information gathered from the consumer is then validated by Aire to provide the genuinely holistic view of a consumer that lenders require, delivering insights that include risk of financial difficulty, validated disposable income and a measure of engagement.
No lengthy or intrusive phone calls. No manual outreach or large call centre requirements. And best of all, lenders can get started in just days and they save up to £60 a customer.
Too good to be true?
This still leaves questions. How can you trust data provided directly from consumers? What about AI bias – are the results fair? And can lenders and customers alike trust it?
To look at first-party misbehaviour or ‘gaming’, sophisticated machine-learning algorithms are used to validate responses for accuracy. Essentially, they measure responses against existing contextual data and check its plausibility.
Aire also looks at how the IVI process is completed. By looking at how people complete the interview, not just what they say, we can spot with a high degree of accuracy if people are trying to game the system.
AI bias – the system creating unfair outcomes – is tackled through governance and culture. In working towards our vision of a world where finance is truly free from bias or prejudice, we invest heavily in constructing the best model governance systems we can at Aire to ensure our models are analysed systematically before being put into use.
This process has undergone rigorous improvements to ensure our outputs are compliant by regulatory standards and also align with our own company principles on data and ethics.
That leaves the issue of encouraging consumers to be confident when speaking to financial institutions online. Part of the solution is developing a better customer experience. If the purpose of this digital engagement is to gather more information on a particular borrower, the route the borrower takes should be personal and reactive to the information they submit. The outcome and potential gain should be clear.
The right technology at the right time?
What is clear is that in Covid-19, and the resulting financial shockwaves, lenders face an unprecedented challenge in customer management. In innovative new data in the form of first-party data, harnessed ethically, they may just have an unprecedented solution.
The Future of Software Supply Chain Security: A focus on open source management
By Emile Monette, Director of Value Chain Security at Synopsys
Software Supply Chain Security: change is needed
Attacks on the Software Supply Chain (SSC) have increased exponentially, fueled at least in part by the widespread adoption of open source software, as well as organisations’ insufficient knowledge of their software content and resultant limited ability to conduct robust risk management. As a result, the SSC remains an inviting target for would-be attackers. It has become clear that changes in how we collectively secure our supply chains are required to raise the cost, and lower the impact, of attacks on the SSC.
A report by Atlantic Council found that “115 instances, going back a decade, of publicly reported attacks on the SSC or disclosure of high-impact vulnerabilities likely to be exploited” in cyber-attacks were implemented by affecting aspects of the SSC. The report highlights a number of alarming trends in the security of the SSC, including a rise in the hijacking of software updates, attacks by state actors, and open source compromises.
This article explores the use of open source software – a primary foundation of almost all modern software – due to its growing prominence, and more importantly, its associated security risks. Poorly managed open source software exposes the user to a number of security risks as it provides affordable vectors to potential attackers allowing them to launch attacks on a variety of entities—including governments, multinational corporations, and even the small to medium-sized companies that comprise the global technology supply chain, individual consumers, and every other user of technology.
The risks of open source software for supply chain security
The 2020 Open Source Security and Risk Analysis (OSSRA) report states that “If your organisation builds or simply uses software, you can assume that software will contain open source. Whether you are a member of an IT, development, operations, or security team, if you don’t have policies in place for identifying and patching known issues with the open source components you’re using, you’re not doing your job.”
Open source code now creates the basic infrastructure of most commercial software which supports enterprise systems and networks, thus providing the foundation of almost every software application used across all industries worldwide. Therefore, the need to identify, track and manage open source code components and libraries has risen tremendously.
License identification, patching vulnerabilities and introducing policies addressing outdated open source packages are now all crucial for responsible open source use. However, the use of open source software itself is not the issue. Because many software engineers ‘reuse’ code components when they are creating software (this is in fact a widely acknowledged best practice for software engineering), the risk of those components becoming out of date has grown. It is the use of unpatched and otherwise poorly managed open source software that is really what is putting organizations at risk.
The 2020 OSSRA report also reveals a variety of worrying statistics regarding SSC security. For example, according to the report, it takes organisations an unacceptably long time to mitigate known vulnerabilities, with 2020 being the first year that the Heartbleed vulnerability was not found in any commercial software analyzed for the OSSRA report. This is six years after the first public disclosure of Heartbleed – plenty of time for even the least sophisticated attackers to take advantage of the known and publicly reported vulnerability.
The report also found that 91% of the investigated codebases contained components that were over four years out of date or had no developments made in the last two years, putting these components at a higher risk of vulnerabilities. Additionally, vulnerabilities found in the audited codebases had an average age of almost 4 ½ years, with 19% of vulnerabilities being over 10 years old, and the oldest vulnerability being a whopping 22 years old. Therefore, it is clear that open source users are not adequately defending themselves against open source enabled cyberattacks. This is especially concerning as 99% of the codebases analyzed in the OSSRA report contained open source software, with 75% of these containing at least one vulnerability, and 49% containing high-risk vulnerabilities.
Mitigating open source security risks
In order to mitigate security risks when using open source components, one must know what software you’re using, and which exploits impact its vulnerabilities. One way to do this is to obtain a comprehensive bill of materials from your suppliers (also known as a “build list” or a “software bill of materials” or “SBOM”). Ideally, the SBOM should contain all the open source components, as well as the versions used, the download locations for all projects and dependencies, the libraries which the code calls to, and the libraries that those dependencies link to.
Creating and communicating policies
Modern applications contain an abundance of open source components with possible security, code quality and licensing issues. Over time, even the best of these open source components will age (and newly discovered vulnerabilities will be identified in the codebase), which will result in them at best losing intended functionality, and at worst exposing the user to cyber exploitation.
Organizations should ensure their policies address updating, licensing, vulnerability management and other risks that the use of open source can create. Clear policies outlining introduction and documentation of new open source components can improve the control of what enters the codebase and that it complies with the policies.
Prioritizing open source security efforts
Organisations should prioritise open source vulnerability mitigation efforts in relation to CVSS (Common Vulnerability Scoring System) scores and CWE (Common Weakness Enumeration) information, along with information about the availability of exploits, paying careful attention to the full life cycle of the open source component, instead of only focusing on what happens on “day zero.” Patch priorities should also be in-line with the business importance of the asset patched, the risk of exploitation and the criticality of the asset. Similarly, organizations must consider using sources outside of the CVSS and CWE information, many of which provide early notification of vulnerabilities, and in particular, choosing one that delivers technical details, upgrade and patch guidance, as well as security insights. Lastly, it is important for organisations to monitor for new threats for the entire time their applications remain in service.
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