The UK is the leading centre for international banking and home to several of the largest global banks. Its banking sector assets were up 3% in 2011 to a record £8,119bn according to TheCityUK report Banking 2012. Although profitability has declined about 10% during the year, banks in the UK have made significant progress in repairing balance sheets, improving capital and funding and are in a better position than other large European countries on a variety of measures.
Banks have, according to the report, reduced reliance on wholesale markets to fund lending, with loan-to-deposit ratios declining 4% on average in 2011 to 102%. Deposits in the UK have grown faster than loans since 2009, narrowing the funding gap to 8% of lending in 2011 from 24% at the outset of the credit crisis. UK banks have also reduced leverage ratios, to just over 20 times in 2011 from over 40 times three years earlier, with leverage set to decline further as banks transition to higher capital requirements under Basel III. However, credit availability and lending remains constrained, in common with other developed countries.
The UK banking sector’s direct exposure to vulnerable sovereign debt in Greece, Portugal, Italy, Spain and Ireland totalled around £15bn at the end of Q3-2011. UK banks have larger exposures to the private sectors in these countries of over £190bn. This was considerably less than, for example, France and Germany, which had overall exposures of over £400bn and £300bn respectively, and more than four times the UK’s direct holdings of vulnerable sovereign debt.
The UK had the second largest banking sector assets in the world, after the US, in 2011. Foreign banks held 48% of the total, a higher proportion than in most other large countries. The UK is the leading centre for international banking, and home to several of the largest global banks. Its 19% share of cross-border bank lending was the highest in the world. The 251 foreign banks physically located in the UK is more than in any other centre. The UK is also one of the most important centres for private and investment banking and Islamic banking.
Figures for the global industry show that assets of the largest 1,000 banks grew by 6.4% in 2010/11 to a record $101.6 trillion, with the highest growth registered in China. TheCityUK forecasts a further 6% increase in industry assets during 2011/12. Banks from emerging market countries have on the whole been less affected by the economic slowdown, and are expected to drive growth in the coming years. In Europe, the increase in sovereign risk in some countries and concerns about government debt levels have spilled over into the banking system, raising the cost of borrowing for many banks and depressing their market capitalisation. According to the report, banks around the world have over $3.5 trillion in wholesale funds which will need to be refinanced in 2012 and 2013. This is made more difficult in some European countries by an increase in funding costs and sharp rise in bank debt yields resulting from an increase in sovereign risk.
Global investment banking revenue totalled $70.3bn in 2011, down slightly on the previous year. Fee revenue of $42.1bn generated during the first half of 2011 represented the strongest start to a year in four years. However, business activity then slowed. The $15.7bn fee revenue generated in Q1-2012 was down a fifth on the same period in 2011.
Business activity from mergers and acquisitions advisory work has fallen considerably since the start of the economic slowdown, and accounted for 27% of revenue in 2011. Equity underwriting, fixed income underwriting and syndicated loans business each accounted for around a third of the remaining business. The US was the source of 54% of business, its highest share in five years. Europe’s share declined during this period to a quarter from close to 40%, partly a result of sovereign risk concerns in some countries. Asia accounted for around a fifth of the total, nearly double its share four years earlier.
Companies in the UK were the source of $3.3bn of global revenue in 2011, down 15% on the 2010 figure. This represented around 4.6% of global fee revenue making it the fourth largest market behind the US, China and Canada. Although the UK was the source of around a fifth of European investment banking fee revenue, around a half of European investment banking activity was conducted through London. The majority of investment banks are either headquartered or have a major office there. The largest international banks in the UK each employ several thousand people.
Companies in the financial sector have consistently been the source of the highest share of investment banks’ business over the past decade, both globally and in the UK. Their 22% global share was ahead of energy and natural resources (20%) and industrials (15%), which both saw a 6% increase in revenue to $14.1bn and $10.8bn respectively. Other fee generating industries included consumer and retails (10%) and technology and healthcare (7% each).
Contribution to the economy
The UK banking sector is a crucial and integral part of its economy. Net exports of UK banks totalled £25bn in 2010 helping to offset the trade in goods deficit. The UK banking industry contributed £56bn to the economy in 2010, equivalent to 4.8% of GDP, or over half of the 8.9% generated by the financial sector as a whole. Foreign direct investment into the UK banking sector more than doubled over the past decade to reach £63.3bn in 2010. During this period outward direct investment grew more than five-fold to £83.4bn.
Banks located in the UK provide employment for 454,200 people. London accounts for 31% of this, followed by North West 10%, Yorkshire 10%, Scotland 9%, the South West 8% and the South East 8%. Other cities outside of London with large employment in banking included Edinburgh (15,100), Leeds (14,500) and Birmingham (12,500).
By Chris Cummings, Chief Executive of TheCityUK
ECB launches small climate-change unit to lead Lagarde’s green push
FRANKFURT (Reuters) – The European Central Bank is setting up a small team dedicated to climate change to spearhead its efforts to help the transition to a greener economy in the euro zone, ECB President Christine Lagarde said on Monday.
Lagarde has made the environment a priority since taking the helm at the ECB, taking a number of steps to include climate considerations in the central bank’s work as the euro zone’s banking watchdog and main financial institution.
She is now creating a team of around 10 ECB employees, reporting directly to her, to set the central bank’s agenda on climate-related topics.
“The climate change centre provides the structure we need to tackle the issue with the urgency and determination that it deserves,” Lagarde said in a speech.
She said that climate change belonged in the ECB’s remit as it could affect inflation and obstruct the flow of credit to the economy.
The ECB said earlier on Monday it would invest some of its own funds, which total 20.8 billion euros ($25.3 billion) and include capital paid in by euro zone countries, reserves and provisions, in a green bond fund run by the Bank for International Settlement.
More significantly, ECB policymakers are also debating what role climate considerations should play in the institution’s multi-trillion euro bond-buying programme.
So far the ECB has bought corporate bonds based on their outstanding amounts but Lagarde has said the bank might have to consider a more active approach to correct the market’s failure to price in climate risk.
“Our strategy review enables us to consider more deeply how we can continue to protect our mandate in the face of (climate) risks and, at the same time, strengthen the resilience of monetary policy and our balance sheet,” Lagarde said.
(Reporting by Balazs Koranyi; Editing by Francesco Canepa and Emelia Sithole-Matarise)
What to expect in 2021: Top trends shaping the future of transportation
By Lee Jones, Director of Sales – Grocery, QSR and Selected Accounts for Northern Europe at Ingenico, a Worldline brand
The pandemic has reinforced the need for businesses to undergo digital transformation, which is pivotal in the digital economy. In 2020, we saw the shift to online and cashless payments accelerated as a result of increased social distancing and nationwide restrictions.
The biggest challenge on all businesses into 2021 will be how they continue to adapt and react to the ever changing new normal we are all experiencing. In this context, what should we expect this year and beyond, in terms of developments across key sectors, including transport, parking and electric vehicle (EV) charging?
Mobility as a service (MaaS) and the future of transportation
Social distancing and lockdown measures have brought about a real change in public habits when it comes to transportation. In the last three months alone, we have seen commuter journeys across the globe reduce by at least 70%, while longer-distance travel has fallen by up to 90%. With it, cash withdrawals for payment has drastically reduced by 60%.
Technological advancements, alongside open payments, have unlocked new possibilities across multiple industries and will continue to have a strong impact. Furthermore, travellers are expecting more as part of their basic service. Tap and pay is one of the biggest evolutions in consumer payments. Bringing ease and simplicity to everyday tasks, consumers have welcomed this development to the transport journey. In-app payments are also on the rise, offering customers the ability to plan ahead and remain assured that they have everything they need, in one place, for every leg of their journey. Many local transport networks now have their own apps with integrated timetables, payments, and ticket download capabilities. These capabilities are being enabled by smaller more portable terminals for transport staff, and self-scanning ticketing devices are streamlining the process even further.
Ultimately, the end goal for many transport providers is MaaS – providing an easy and frictionless all-encompassing transport system that guides consumers through the whole journey, no matter what mode of travel they choose. Additionally, payment will remain the key orchestrator that will drive further developments in the transportation and MaaS ecosystems in 2021. What remains critical is balancing the need for a fast and convenient payment with safety and data privacy in order to deliver superior customer experiences.
The EV charging market and the accelerating pace of change
The EV charging market is moving quickly and represents a large opportunity for payments in the future. EVs are gradually becoming more popular, with registrations for EVs overtaking those of their diesel counterparts for the first time in European history this year. What’s more, forecasts indicate that by 2030, there will be almost 42 million public charging points deployed worldwide, as compared with 520,000 registered in 2019.
Our experience and expertise in this industry have enabled us to better understand but also address the challenges and complexities of fuel and EV payments. The current alternating current (AC) based chargers are set to be replaced by their direct charging (DC) counterparts, but merchants must still be able to guarantee payment for the charging provider. Power always needs to be converted from AC to DC when charging an electric vehicle, the technical difference between AC charging and DC charging is whether the power gets converted outside or inside the vehicle.
By offering innovative payment solutions to this market segment, we enable service operators to incorporate payments smoothly into their omnichannel customer experience that also allows businesses to easily develop acceptance and provide a unique omnichannel strategy for EV charging payments. From proximity to online payments, it will support businesses by offering a unique hardware solution optimized for PSD2 and SCA. It will manage both near field communication (NFC) cards and payments from cards/smartphones, as well as a single interface to manage all payments, after sales support and receipt with both ePortal and eReceipts.
Cashless options for parking payments
The ‘new normal’ is now partly defined by a shift in consumer preference for cashless, contactless and mobile or embedded payments. These are now the preferred payment choices when it comes to completing the check-in and check-out process. They are a time-saver and a more seamless way to pay.
Drivers are more self-reliant and empowered than ever before, having adopted technologies that work to make their life increasingly efficient. COVID-19 has given rise to both ePayment and omnichannel solutions gaining in popularity. This has been due to ticketless access control based on license plate recognition or the tap-in/tap-out experience, as well as embedded payments or mobile solutions for street parking.
These smart solutions help consider parking services more broadly as a part of overall mobility or shopping experience. Therefore, operators must rapidly adapt and scale new operational practices; accept electronic payment, update new contactless limits, introduce additional payments means, refund the user or even to reflect changing customer expectations to keep pace.
2021: the journey ahead
This year, we expect to see an even greater shift towards a cashless society across these key sectors, making the buying experience quicker and more convenient overall.
As a result, merchants and operators must make the consumer experience their top priority as trends shift towards simplicity and convenience, ensuring online and mobile payments processes are as secure as possible.
Opportunities and challenges facing financial services firms in 2021
By Paul McCreadie, Partner at ECI Partners, the leading growth-focused mid-market private equity firm
Despite 2020 being an enormously disruptive year for businesses, our latest Growth Index research reveals that almost three quarters (74%) of mid-market financial services companies remained resilient throughout the pandemic.
This is positive news, especially when taking into account the economic disruption that financial services firms have had to go through since the crisis began. No doubt 2021 will also hold its own challenges – as well as opportunities – for firms in this sector.
Unsurprisingly, the biggest short-term concern for financial firms for the year ahead involved changing pandemic guidance, with 42% citing this as a top concern. With the UK currently experiencing a third lockdown many financial services businesses will have already had to adapt to rapidly changing guidance, even since being surveyed.
Businesses will also be considering the need to invest in working from home operations, and there may be uncertainty over re-opening offices on a permanent basis. According to the research 30% of financial services firms are planning to adopt remote working on a permanent basis, so decisions need to be made now about whether they invest more in enabling staff to do this, or in their current office premises.
Due to Brexit, UK financial services firms are no longer able to passport their services into Europe, which may cause problems, particularly in the next 12 months as the Brexit deal is ironed out and the agreement is put into practice. Despite this, Brexit was only cited by 24% of financial firms as a short-term concern. While it’s comforting to see that UK financial firms aren’t hugely concerned about Brexit at this juncture, it is going to be vital for the ongoing success of the industry that the UK is able to get straightforward access to Europe and operate there without issue, otherwise we may see these concern levels rise.
Looking ahead to longer-term concerns for financial services businesses, the top concern was global economic downturn, of which 40% of firms cited this as a worry when looking beyond 2021.
Investing and adopting tech
Traditionally, the financial services sector has been slow to adopt digital transformation. Issues with legacy systems, coupled with often large amounts of data and a reluctance to undertake potentially risky change processes, have meant many firms are behind the curve when it comes to technology adoption. It’s therefore promising to see that so much has changed over the last year, with 45% of financial services firms having invested in AI and machine learning technology – making it the top sector to have invested in this space over the last 12 months.
One business that exemplifies the benefits of investing in machine learning is Avantia, the technology-enabled insurance provider behind HomeProtect. The business has undergone a large tech transformation in the last few years, investing in an underlying machine learning platform and an in-house data science team, which provides them with capabilities to return a quote to over 98% of applicants in under one second. This tech investment has allowed them to become more scalable, provide a more stable platform, improve customer service and consequently, grow significantly.
This demonstrates how this kind of tech can help businesses to leverage tech in order to offer a better customer experience, and retain and grow market share through winning new customers. This resilience should combat some of the concerns that firms will face in the next year.
Additionally, half (51%) of financial services firms have invested in cybersecurity tech over the last year, which allows them to protect the platforms on which they operate and ensure ongoing provision of solutions to their customers.
Clearly, there is a benefit of international revenues and profits on business resilience. In practice, this meant that businesses that weren’t internationally diversified in 2020 struggled more during the pandemic. In fact, the businesses considered to be the least resilient through the 2020 crisis were three times more likely to only operate domestically.
Perhaps an attribute towards financial services firms’ resilience in 2020, therefore, was the fact that 53% already had a presence in Europe throughout 2020 and 38% had a presence in North America. This internationalisation gave them an advantage that allowed them to weather the many storms of 2020.
Looking at how to capitalise on this throughout the rest of 2021, half (51%) of are planning overseas growth in Europe over the next 12 months, and 43% in North America. Further plans to expand internationally is not only a good sign for growth, but should further increase resilience within the sector.
While there are many concerns, the fact that financial services businesses are investing in technology like AI and machine learning, as well as still planning to grow internationally, means that they are providing themselves with the best chances of dealing with any upcoming challenges effectively.
In order to maintain their growth and resilience throughout the next 12 months, it’s imperative that they continue to put their customers first, invest in technology and remain on the front foot of digital change.
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