Angela Nightingale, General Manager of Trinity Fund Administration (Cayman)
As governments the world over negotiate and come to separate agreements with the US on the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), a new level of tax information sharing is beginning to emerge. As administrations on a global scale struggle to reduce debt, rather than reducing their profligate spending, the so called “eradication of tax evasion” is proving a more popular political slogan. With the impending arrival of FATCA, it is clear that new agreements which demand automatic exchange of information between nations and penalise non-compliance will not be limited to the United States.
Tax information exchange agreements (TIEAs) have been a priority for certain Western governments for several years. Countries have entered into bilateral agreements with other nations in order to capture and share out the taxation on cross-border financial activity. The OECD released a model tax agreement in 2002 in order to encourage countries to share tax information through bilateral agreements. Currently, this type of tax agreement is the norm, whereby the agreement is non-binding and tax information is shared on a case by case basis at the request of a member nation.
In Europe, a system with FATCA-esque characteristics has been in effect since 2005, when the EU Savings Directive came into force. The Directive applies to interest earned on investments paid to individuals resident in an EU Member State, other than the one where the interest originates. The Directive applies only to individuals and requires either automatic direct reporting to relevant tax authorities, or withholding of taxation and subsequent remission to the state of residence of the beneficiary.
The principle of direct reporting to a designated tax authority is similar to the stipulations of FATCA, although FATCA will apply to all foreign financial assets of US taxable persons, as defined. The US Treasury Department and Internal Revenue Service (IRS) released on the 17th of January 2013, final regulations under the FATCA provisions, which can be found here.
Intergovernmental FATCA Agreements
FATCA obliges US taxpayers to declare any financial assets above certain thresholds held overseas and Foreign Financial Institutions (FFIs) to report on assets owned by US taxpayers to the IRS1. FATCA originally obliged all FFIs to enter into agreements with the IRS, under bilateral intergovernmental agreements with the US, however FFIs can now report to their own tax authorities, who will then provide the relevant information to the IRS (Model 1 agreement), or alternatively report directly to the IRS (Model 2 agreement). For FFIs which do not comply with this, the US Treasury plans to impose a thirty per cent levy on all payments from US sources to non-compliant FFIs.
The first Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) that the US concluded was with the United Kingdom, an agreement now being used as something of a template for other nations. The US and the UK have reiterated that this is a reciprocal agreement and that it increases the UK’s ability to obtain information from the US to combat UK tax evasion as well as increasing the US’s information gathering. It has been suggested that although the respective governments have stressed the mutually beneficial nature of the UK-US IGA, certain critics of the agreement have deemed to be merely aspirational in its reciprocity, suggesting in imbalance in the level of automatic information sharing. The agreement also purports to address the legal concerns that many FFIs have about complying with FATCA, as a result of banking secrecy laws. Certain FFIs that have been deemed to carry low risk as vehicles of tax evasion are specified in this agreement and are thus more or less exempt from FATCA requirements.
Ireland, Denmark and Mexico have now also concluded intergovernmental FATCA agreements with the US, also using the Model I agreement.
Growth of FATCA-esque Regulation
As governments become more familiar with FATCA and negotiate mutually beneficial agreements, it appears that several governments are proposing their own legislation mirroring FATCA-esque demands. After signing the first FATCA agreement, the UK revealed that it has also drafted legislation which has earned the nickname ‘son of FATCA’. The son of FATCA requires all UK Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories to automatically exchange information with the UK on UK account holders on an annual basis. The Isle of Man is the first UK to territory to agree to comply with this and has already signed an enhanced tax information exchange agreement.
If the British territories object to this legislation, the UK may force the jurisdictions to comply by threatening to veto the territories’ own FATCA agreements with the US, effectively cutting the territories off from the US. Thus it seems inevitable that the British territories will be entering automatic tax information exchange agreements with the UK in the coming years.
Even though the UK’s FATCA-esque legislation relates to British territories only, this is a significant break from the level of information sharing required by territories including Jersey, Guernsey, the Cayman Islands and Bermuda (who are not currently required to automatically provide information on UK account holders). The Cayman Islands has TIEAs with thirty countries, including one signed in December 2012 with Italy, however the Cayman Islands government does not track data on its residents, it is Cayman banks that are responsible for providing information on demand.
In addition to the UK’s son of FATCA, France also this year launched a so-called ‘mini FATCA’ which targets overseas trusts with French tax-resident settlors or beneficiaries. The legislation came into effect in July 2012, and includes a penalty of €10,000 or 5% of the trust corpus (whichever the larger) for non-compliance. The law requires that the French government receives a detailed inventory of the assets held by French tax residents4, although there has been some confusion as to the necessary valuation methodologies when submitting this report. Further questions have been raised regarding France’s tax regime following the recent media flurry regarding French film star Gerard Depardieu’s renunciation of his French passport in exchange for Russian citizenship in order to benefit from Russia’s preferential tax regime.
With France and Britain on the FATCA-esque bandwagon, other countries are researching their own options too. Brazil requires final beneficial owner information on any transaction on its stock market the BM&F Bovespa, specifically for international beneficiaries. Brazil is currently preparing legislation which has been likened to FATCA, aiming to strengthen the requirements for providing information on ultimate beneficial owners of assets held by Brazil tax residents in funds and companies outside of Brazil. Any FFI which works with Brazilian clients will be eager to hear the final proposals from the Brazilian government, when they become available.
Future of FATCA
Although several governments are moving toward legislation requiring automatic tax information sharing, the numbers of bilateral TIEAs also continue to rise, thus we are not going to see the demise of tax information sharing on a case by case basis. What we are seeing, is that governments are seeking to reach mutually beneficial agreements which will place greater even reporting demands on international financial institutions.
Countries which operate banking secrecy laws are, of course, highly concerned by the possibility of breaking these laws in order to comply. It remains to be seen how many countries will be able to introduce a system like FATCA, however as the Chief Executive of Jersey Finance Geoff Cook said ‘It is well known that the principles behind the US FACTA arrangements are being looked at by the OECD, EU and UK,’6 thus we can be assured that the financial industry and governments alike await the final outcome of FATCA with anticipation.
For further information on any of the topics covered please contact Trinity Fund Administration (Cayman) Limited at +1 345 743 6622 or email [email protected] or visit our website at www.trinityadmin.com
Digital collaboration: Shaping the Future of Finance
By Ryan Lester, Senior Director of Customer Experience Technologies at LogMeIn
With heightened economic uncertainty and increased customer expectation becoming the norm in the banking industry, it is understandable that the sector is struggling to keep afloat. Due to its precarious nature, banking institutions are trying their best to ensure they remain relevant in the competitive landscape and guarantee that their customers continue to be a priority.
When it comes to the first half of this year, the pandemic has shown how easy it is for industries to fail. Customers and companies alike had to get used to the new normal, as physical locations started to close. The banking industry felt this first hand, as banks were made to restructure how their business ran, with restricted opening hours and a wider push to motivate people to use online banking.
While some had already embraced digital options prior to the pandemic, this proved to be a stark contrast to the elderly population, who frequently visited branches to access their finances. Moving forward, banks have to adopt new methods to ensure customers get the most out of our their accounts, without their experience suffering.
Heightened Customer Expectations
When the pandemic reached its peak, people were encouraged to use online banking, as telephone contact was under strain with long waiting times and pressure mounting on contact centre agents. According to Fidelity National Information Services (FIS), which works with 50 of the world’s largest banks, there was a 200% jump in new mobile banking registrations in early April, while mobile banking traffic rose 85%.
With branches remaining closed, customers were continuously being urged to limit the amount of calls they made to the most urgent cases and consider whether they could solve their answers through mobile online banking or checking the company website. Although already being adopted in pockets of the industry, this was a real catalyst that spurred banks to up their game on digital channels and with self-service tools.
Banks are challenged with precariously balancing customer needs with the cost of personalised support. With the demographic of customers changing over the last few years, customers are becoming increasingly younger and more comfortable with technology. Influenced by the “Amazon Effect”, their expectations have raised to an all-time high, placing record strain on the sector
Customer experience isn’t just about support anymore, it’s about serving your customer at every point in the journey. Companies have an opportunity to elevate the experience they provide by moving beyond one-and-done interactions to create continuous engagements with their customers. It is starting to become a primary competitive differentiator in the market and one that doesn’t have a lot of variation. Deploying AI chatbot technology will be able to strategically help banks improve customer experience and raise the level of support that agents provide.
Digital collaboration: Working around the Clock
The benefits of adopting digital channels and self-service tools are second to none. By implementing chatbots, fuelled by conversational AI, banks will be able to help serve a wide range of customer queries and ensure they are protected from fraud and scams.
Conversational AI is exactly what it sounds like: a computer programme that engages in a conversation with a human. When it comes to service delivery, conversational AI can be deployed across multiple channels to engage with customers in ways that effectively address evolving customer needs. At a time defined by COVID-19, self-service tools such a conversational chatbots can work around the clock to solve customer queries in a concise and timely way. Of course, self-service tools won’t completely replace human agents in the banking industry, but they will help companies re-distribute customer traffic and workflows in ways that enhance customer experience. Self-service tools fuelled by conversational AI can also improve employee experience because service employees can handle fewer, but higher-level service tasks that chatbots might escalate to them.
Adopting new tools to help facilitate consistent and concise answers and help maintain customer experience is on the forefront of many industry minds. Banks such as the Natwest Group have seen this first-hand and are testament to the benefits that a good digital experience can provide. Simon Johnson, Capability Consultant, Digital at NatWest Group highlights NatWest’s use of digital tools during lockdown, “Over the last few months, we’ve learnt how to use digital tools to help our employees remotely. From a banking perspective, there have been a lot of changes including base rates, waive fees and the best ways of contacting our vulnerable customers, ensuring we keep them protected from frauds and scams.
“By introducing our Bold360 chatbot interface, Ella, we’ve been able to get relevant information out quickly, apply the best practice and ensure that our customer journeys are being developed correctly. Due to the volume of questions, some of our customers were finding themselves waiting longer than usual. So digital channels become essential to helping reduce the wait time. Using Bold360, we were able to mitigate issues and answer questions in a more timely way through our chatbot.
“Moving forward, as we open more digital services, we are analysing our data to see if customer will return back to their usual way of banking, now that they’ve seen what a good digital experience can provide. Either way, with Ella, we are ready.”
Chatbots and Humans: The Best Option for Customer Service
Over the last year, banking institutions have recognised the power that digital collaboration can have to their success. Delivering exceptional customer service and support is key for any business wanting to stay competitive in today’s market and banks are especially challenged with precariously balancing customer needs with the cost of personalised support. Leveraging the right technology, such as AI-powered chatbots, will enable the banking industry to provide better support and a more robust customer experience in the long term. Other institutions must follow suit, or risk becoming obsolete.
A sleeping digital giant wakes? 4 key trends accelerating payments transformation in the US
By Lauren Jones, International Payments Ambassador, Icon Solutions
The US payments industry is undoubtedly ripe for change. Before the unprecedented shock of COVID-19, digitization and payments transformation initiatives had been organic, piecemeal and predominately the preserve of the largest banks.
Now, increasing pressure means that financial institutions of all sizes are working to define a digital strategy to unlock new opportunities, drive business value, and stay competitive. But beyond the immediate impact of COVID, what underlying trends are accelerating digitization in the US?
- Real-time payments – the stimulus for change
Real-time payments have been met with a degree of caution by US financial institutions. Risking traditional profit generators in return for potential revenues down the line is a gamble many have not been willing to take. But immediate payments are coming to the US whether banks like it or not.
Major payments infrastructure providers, including NACHA and The Clearing House (TCH), have moved to encourage immediate payment adoption in recent years. But the Fed, frustrated with a slow rate of progress, has announced that it is pressing ahead with the implementation of its FedNow system (despite significant industry objection). Although the Fed’s true intentions are open to interpretation and this may just be a play to accelerate private initiatives, it is a clear signal that they mean business.
This means holdouts risk their own ‘Kodak’ moment if they miss the huge opportunities in front of them by fixating on traditional revenue streams. Banks are in a position to support innovation across entire industries such as healthcare, which could be released from the constraints of paper-based bureaucracy and slow, expensive transactions.
Another opportunity that can be unlocked via instant payments is ISO 20022 (used in the TCH RTP system). It is the future of payments messaging standards and can greatly enhance various payments processes through increased data-carrying capabilities. More importantly given the current climate, citizens reliant on federal or state support can benefit from RTPs combined with additional data to immediately access emergency funds.
- The kids are growing up
The US is getting older. Consumers who were 10 when the iPhone first launched are now 23. This means we are seeing a ramp-up of digitally native Gen Z consumers (roughly those born between 1995 and 2010) accessing banking services.
Demographics are an inexact science and not perfect predictors (there are technophobe college students and 100-year-old Instagram influencers), but we can detect noticeable trends.
Younger customers don’t usually choose a bank because there is an ATM in their neighbourhood, a slightly better interest rate or an advert in the newspaper. Rather, a strong digital presence, personalised tools, rewards and experiences, and the trusted recommendations of friends and family, will have a more significant impact on customer acquisition.
Banks must look at the effect this will have on their longer-term digitalization strategy and be able to segment what this emerging customer base might want and how they will interact in years to come.
- Checkmate? Evolving corporate requirements
Corporate treasurers are people and their experience of seamless, immediate payments in their personal lives shapes expectations in the workplace. Although check usage for business-to-business (B2B) transactions is still the norm in the US and barriers remain, corporates are increasingly demanding the ability to transact in a real-time, omnichannel environment, 24×7.
The benefits are clear. Corporate treasurers stand to enjoy enhanced liquidity management and transparency, greater control over payments and enhanced data for reconciliation purposes. And for consumers, alternative digital payment options such as buy now pay later promote choice and flexibility.
- Increasing competition
A significant consequence of emerging consumer and business demand for digital offerings is the increase in competition from fintechs, technology giants and other third-parties. Traditionally, incumbent banks have enjoyed the advantage of consumer trust to offset more limited innovation. But as consumers become more comfortable entrusting their financial transactions to non-banks, banks must differentiate and digitize to remain competitive.
Data is where the technology giants excel, and their ability to personalise experiences and emotionally connect with their users is unprecedented. Banks need to learn from the positive aspects of this model to better understand their users and deliver meaningful, useful products and services.
For data to become the cornerstone of a banks’ customer relationship and take services to the next level, breaking the channel silos and extracting value from a comprehensive dataset will be decisive. But with only 18% of banks reporting that they are in the process of shifting from a transactional revenue model to a data-driven revenue model, this work has some way to go.
Taking customer propositions to the next level
Customers now expect services that work for them, not their banks. All banks, no matter the footprint, need to move quickly to offer a broad digital service platform that adds value to both the customer and the bank.
By defining a robust payments transformation strategy, banks of all sizes can remain fiercely competitive by rapidly lowering costs, unlocking revenues and promoting innovation
Return to Work Doesn’t Mean Business as Usual When it Comes to Travel and Expense
By Rob Harrison, MD UK & Ireland, SAP Concur
The last few months have been an exercise in adaptability for businesses across the UK. With the sudden mandate to work from home, company processes that were ingrained in employees’ day-to-day routines were either put on hold or turned upside down. The new office normal now includes virtual meetings, conversing through instant messaging instead of in the hallway, and the redefining of “business casual” attire.
Many of the processes that have undergone changes fall into the category of travel and expense. With most business travel on hold and the nature of expenses changing, finance managers have had to adjust policies and practices to accommodate the new world of work. Recent SAP Concur research found that 72% of businesses have seen changes in the levels and types of expenses submitted, but only 24% have changed their policies to support this. Examples of travel and expense related changes that were made at the beginning of work from home mandates include:
- A halt to business travel and its associated expenses.
- Temporarily ending expensed meals for business lunches, dinners, or in-office meetings.
- Increase in office expenses like monitors and chairs as employees furnish their home offices.
- New expenses to consider like Internet and cell phone bills for employees who must work from home.
Now, as companies begin thinking about return to work plans, finance managers are discovering it’s not simply business as usual again. SAP Concur research found that many expect finance will return to normal quicker than general workplace practices, but vast majority see the process taking up to 12 months. New policies and processes need to be put in place to accommodate travel restrictions and changes in expenses. While finance managers need to stay flexible as the business environment continues to evolve, spend control and compliance should still be a high priority.
Here are a few questions that can help finance managers prepare for return to work while keeping control and compliance top of mind:
- What will travel look like for the company? Finance managers must work with travel and HR counterparts to determine the need for employee travel, if at all, and how to keep employees safe. At SAP Concur, we surveyed 500 UK business travellers and found that health and safety is now seen as more than twice as important than their business goals being met on trips (34% versus 16%. Clear guidelines should be developed, even if they are temporary or evolving, so it’s clear who can travel, when they can travel, and how they can travel. Duty of care plans should also be re-evaluated and businesses should ensure they know at all times where employees are traveling for business and how they can communicate with them in the event of an emergency.
- Who needs to approve travel and expenses? While it may be temporary, businesses may have to implement a more stringent approval policy for travel and other expenses. Due to health concerns related to travel and the need to conserve cash flow, business leaders like CFOs may want to have final approval over all travel and expenses until the situation stabilises. To help ensure new approval processes don’t cause delays and inefficiencies, finance managers should implement an automated solution that streamlines the process and allows business leaders to review and approve travel requests, expenses, and invoices right from their phones. According to SAP Concur research, 11% of UK businesses implemented some automation of financial processes in response to COVID-19. This is definitely set to increase post-pandemic.
What types of expenses are within policy? Prior to social distancing, employees may have been allowed to take clients out to dinner. In-person team meetings held during the lunch hour, may have included expensed lunches. As employees return to work, finance managers need to determine if these activities and expenses will be allowed again. Clear guidelines must be put in place and expense policies need to be updated to reflect any changes.
- What happens to home office items that were purchased? While new office equipment may have been purchased for employees’ home offices, they remain the business’s property and what to do with them as employees return to work needs to be determined. Perhaps employees will continue to work from home a few days a week and need to keep the equipment to ensure productivity. However, if a full return to work is expected, finance managers have options that can maximise their asset investment and possibly save the company money, like replacing old office equipment with the new purchases, reselling to a used office furniture company, or donating to a non-profit.
- How can cost control be ensured? For many businesses, cash flow will be tight for the foreseeable future. Spend needs to be managed to help ensure recovery and stability. An important aspect of controlling costs is having full visibility of expenses throughout the company. Implementing an automated spend management solution that integrates expense and invoice management brings together a business’s spend, giving finance managers an understanding of where they can save, where to renegotiate, and where to redirect budgets based on plans and priorities.
Once finance managers have asked themselves the questions above and determined how they want to approach travel and expense procedures, it’s vital they create guidelines and communicate clearly to employees. Compliance can only be ensured if employees have a clear understanding of what has and has not changed with travel and expense policies and what’s expected as they return to work.
Digital collaboration: Shaping the Future of Finance
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