The scope of fraud management for financial crimes has reached global proportions. Financial service organizations are contending with measures for Anti-Money Laundering (AML),Suspicious Activity Reports (SAR), counterfeiting and social engineering falsities, as well as synthetic, first-party, and card-not-present fraud. Such activities have spanned national and international borders.
The visual capabilities of graph analytics are ideal for monitoring, categorizing, and predicting threats to maximize prevention efforts. Graph techniques such as cluster analytics enable fraud management teams to visualize the distribution and acuteness of specific actors or fraud instances.
Supplementing this approach with Artificial Intelligence, however, provides the pivotal difference between merely monitoring fraud and impeding it. Machine learning algorithms can determine the probability of a particular fraud instance, codify it according to imminence or importance, then help issue alerts for preemptive action.
By compiling fraud-related data into an AI knowledge graph, risk management personnel can also triage those alerts for the right action at the right time. They also get the additive benefit of reusing this graph to decrease other risks for security, loans, or additional financial purposes.
Visualizing Fraudulent Behavior
Graph aware analytics represent relationships in ways users intuitively understand by illustrating connections between data and business objectives like fraud prevention. This visual approach is an integral aspect of investigating fraud, in which it’s crucial to understand relationships between different parties or events. Organizations should populate risk management knowledge graphs with as much data as possible about customers, including data about their customers. For example, when monitoring dollar clearing activities between an international bank in Paris and its Manhattan branch, these graphs should contain data about the parent company’s customers too.
This data form the basis for customer profiles predicated on user behavior, which are further codified into business attribute defined customer or event segmentation. These customer and event segments enable users to deploy visual techniques like cluster analytics to see a variety of relationships related to fraud, including clusters within segments for specific fraud types or macrocosms of inter-cluster relationships. The result is an effective fraud threat map; competitive visualization frameworks facilitate dynamic clustering without writing code.
The Machine Learning Effect
By incorporating AI, these threat maps yields a plethora of information for actually preventing fraud. Supervised learning methods can readily identify what events constitute fraud and which don’t; many of these involve classic machine learning.Unsupervised learning capabilities are influential in determining normal user behavior then pinpointing anomalies contributing to fraud. Perhaps the most effective way AI underpins risk management knowledge graphs is in predicting the likelihood—and when—a specific fraud instance will take place. Once organizations have data for customers, events, and fraud types over a length of time (which could be in as little as a month in the rapidly evolving financial crimes space), they can compute the co-occurrence between events and fraud types.
Co-occurrences are a core machine learning concept indicating how often events appear together. For example, fraud managers could compute the co-occurrence between the reissuing of a payment card and unauthorized ATM transactions. With the requisite data, they can even do so for particular customers. When co-occurrences are statistically significant according to the distribution of events, users can convert them to odds ratios to reveal their probability. Ascertaining the co-occurrence between various customers, events, and fraud instances can be as extensive as an organization likes, encompassing a range of variables. This process can also leverage reinforcement learning techniques and others in which the output of machine learning is input into the graph as knowledge for further analysis about when and how threats will occur.
Action is derived from AI knowledge graph analytics in the form of alerts, which organizations can use to inform relevant parties about the likelihood of fraud occurring. Savvy organizations will triage those alerts so parties understand which fraudulent instance is likely to take place before others. Once alerts are issued, these platforms also offer germane information for other aspects of dealing with fraud such as impact analysis. They can identify exactly who the stakeholders are in the event of fraud, which in turn proves useful for effecting damage control. For the dollar clearing use case mentioned above, these risk management graphs can denote which customers of the French parent company are affected by any potential money laundering activity, for example.
Nonetheless, the true benefit of the AI knowledge graph approach to mitigating fraud lies in the preventative capabilities of these technologies. By calculating the probability of future fraudulent events manifesting, these platforms give organizations a critical temporal advantage for preventing them. Triaging alerts based on those probabilities is the first step to optimizing that time to forestall these financial crimes. With enough data, these graphs can provide similar benefits for securing loans or monitoring enterprise security.
About the Author:
Jans Aasman is Ph.D. psychologist and expert in Cognitive Science – as well as CEO of Franz.com, an early innovator in Artificial Intelligence and provider of Semantic Graph Databases and Analytics. As both a scientist and CEO, Dr. Aasman continues to break ground in the areas of Artificial Intelligence and Semantic Databases as he works hand-in-hand with organizations such as Montefiore Medical Center, Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Siemens, Merck, Pfizer, Wells Fargo, BAE Systems as well as US and Foreign governments.
Dr. Aasman spent a large part of his professional life in telecommunications research, specializing in applied Artificial Intelligence projects and intelligent user interfaces. He gathered patents in the areas of speech technology, multimodal user interaction, recommendation engines while developing precursor technology for the iPad and Siri from 1995 to 2004. He was also a part-time professor in the Industrial Design department of the Technical University of Delft.
Seven lessons from 2020
Rebeca Ehrnrooth, Equilibrium Capital and CEMS Alumni Association President
Attending a New Year’s luncheon on 31 December 2019, we played a game that involved predicting the world in 2020. Some of the questions included: would Uber become profitable? Would the three-decade bond rally finally come to an end? Would the US hit a recession?
Unlike any of our predictions based on a traditional approach to business and predicting, we now know that 2020 became the year where business, professional and personal plans were turned upside down, reshaped and put-on hold. The proverbial black swan had arrived.
As revealed in a new CEMS Guide to Leadership in a Post-COVID-19 World, to which I contributed, the COVID-19 pandemic has exposed deficiencies in the 20th Century vision of leadership, giving a rare opportunity to question the status quo.
So, what are the main lessons from 2020?
- Humans are enormously adaptive. This is not an extinction scenario. The world is getting used to dealing with global human disaster which may become a recurring event. Life continues guided by new parameters.
- No sector or country is immune to rapid change. Just as the leveraged finance and equity markets ground to a halt during the Global Financial Crisis, we have seen a disruption in the financial markets (including M&A) in 2020, including a significant redistribution of wealth between sectors; think tech vs airlines and the hospitality industry. When a market is disrupted it has secondary and tertiary effects such as less work for accountants, lawyers, financiers etc.
- Location is not as important anymore. The belief that finance staff need to be based in one of the financial capitals to be effective has been forever altered. Pursuing a career in finance from anywhere is becoming possible. However, it’s likely that over time, financial controls and human interaction will move the work model back towards the traditional office approach, as work is a critical sanctuary for people. While working from home may allow more time for family, chores and sports, it is mainly effective for people who already have their internal and external networks. For junior employees it presents a notable challenge as they may be forced to spend their formative years without a chance to really build their networks.
- Change is likely to be lasting. The opportunity for alternative finance and tech focused providers is enormous and 2020 will accelerate this shift. For example, many retail banks are providing rather poor customer service, blaming the pandemic. Even the most loyal customers will be heading elsewhere. For recent graduates and current students this is a major shift; future winners and key employers may not be names we are used to seeing in the headlines.
- There will be a spotlight on leaders with visionary strategy and understanding of the operations. 2020 showed many politicians and business leaders behaving like they were playing a game of snakes and ladders, rather than executing a thought-out strategy. The next wave of thoughtful leadership is urgently required.
- Collaboration leads to success. The definition of a pandemic is an infectious disease prevalent worldwide. A global problem requires a collaborative solution rather than each country and industry on their own. Quoting Steven Riley, professor of infectious disease dynamics at Imperial College London: “Once you have the knowledge and you share the knowledge, then you are able to take measures to push transmission much lower”. This principle is transferable to management education. In a world more complex than ever, investing in a degree is hard currency. Combined with the full global alumni network, corporate partners and schools, CEMS is capital that doesn’t depreciate.
- Resilience has become a watch word. Saint-Exupéry’s quote resonates with me: “If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea.” We are in a new paradigm – so prepare for the next change. For COVID-19, while we hope that the vaccine will soon upon us, the broader long-term positive challenge remains.
Data after Brexit: How does the end of the transition affect GDPR?
By John Flynn, Principal Security Consultant at Conosco
The UK has officially left the European Union now that the transition period has ended on January 1st 2021. But this could raise issues with one of the biggest bugbears for many companies – the international transfer of personal data.
Businesses can relax, somewhat – GDPR, which took businesses months to get their heads around, is not being replaced. It will continue as the UK GDPR 2018, and will still be based on the criteria of the Data Protection Act of 2018. However, the UK will retain the right to change the UK GDPR as it sees fit in the future.
The main changes apply to those who receive data coming into the UK from Europe. Transfers from the UK to other countries can continue under existing arrangements.
We know it can be difficult to cut through the legal jargon, so we have simplified what you need to know to protect yourself and your data:
1 – Update your privacy notice
Most businesses do not have the correct clauses in place ahead of January 1st, potentially exposing their liability, should something happen to their data. All company privacy notices online will need to be updated to specifically state ‘UK GDPR’, as opposed to ‘EU GDPR’. You will also need standard contractual clauses in place, which cover both parties – those transferring and those receiving the data.
The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has a list of what needs to be included in the standard contractual clause here. The ICO will remain the UK regulator for data protection, regularly liaising with each EU member state.
This also applies to Multi Corporate Groups who operate in multiple countries, who need to update their documentation and privacy notice to expressly cover the data transfers. The UK has applied for an adequacy assessment, which would negate the need for contractual clauses, however this has not yet been approved by the EU.
2 – Data privacy assessments
Any company which runs applications and software should always perform a Data Privacy Impact Assessment. This was also in the guidelines before, but these assessments are now more important for those who outsource their IT operations internationally.
For example, when using a service such as a cloud-based system, the company must be sure that its service provider adheres to UK GDPR and stores the data within the European Economic Area (EEA), or has a binding corporate agreement with the company, where data is stored outside of the EEA. You should also, as mentioned above, make sure that a contractual clause is in place.
3 – Review local legislation
Contracts should now have contractual clauses that specify the responsibilities of the data controller and the data processor. If you are receiving personal data from a country territory or sector covered by a European Commission adequacy decision, the sender of the data will need to consider how to comply with its local laws on international transfers. You should check local legislation and guidance in this case.
4 – Cyber Security health check
The ICO is increasing its capacity and efforts to crack down on data breaches, post-Brexit. Now is a great time for all companies to have a health check to understand their Information Security posture and GDPR compliance. Nobody wants to be caught handling data improperly and fined when it could have been prevented with education and training.
A gap analysis performed by an expert is money well-spent. It’s also a fact that companies that have cybersecurity and Information Security controls are not only able to better defend against attacks but are also far better placed to recover from an attack.
It’s important that all businesses – large and small – are properly preparing their data storage and transferring for the 1st January. ICO has been busy setting examples by fining large, high-profile companies for failing to keep millions of customers’ personal data safe.
It will continue to come down hard on the data breaches of personal identifiable information and special categories of data. The saying ‘prevention is better than a cure’ rings truer than ever this year, and you will thank yourself if you make the efforts to properly store your data now, and not when it’s too late.
2020 reflections and 2021 outlook
By John Hunter, Head of Banking and Fiduciaries, Finance Isle of Man
Reflections on the most surreal year
The Covid-19 pandemic has completely changed the world as we knew it, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and fears of a downturn hang over global economies like a sword of Damocles. In the UK, the new strain has further exacerbated the situation. As I am sure many have already said we are living in what could be called the most surreal times. People have been trying to cope with this “new normal”, by changing their lifestyles and evolving behaviours.
The Isle of Man responded swiftly to the pandemic by closing its borders and enforcing social restrictions which everyone respected and adhered to. Socially and culturally the Island demonstrated all the good things that come from living on a relatively small Island where community still means so much.
The Isle of Man’s financial services sector adapted quickly, seamlessly transitioning to working from home. The banks too adopted flexible remote working practices and continued to support clients around the world helping them navigate the challenging situation and making the most of any opportunities that arose.
Although there is no substitute for face-to-face interactions, we all embraced web-conferencing platforms like Microsoft Teams and Zoom to stay connected with contacts around the world and build and nurture business relationships, whether it was with financial services firms or high net worth individuals looking to relocate to the Island.
Furthermore, a priority for the Isle of Man has been to reinvigorate the business and cultural ties with South Africa. In a normal world, we would have travelled to the country, held in-person meetings with businesses and industry representatives and talked about building on our wonderful historic ties. However, because of the scale and breadth of disruption we had to change all our plans! We hosted a virtual roadshow which comprised a series of webinars exploring why it has never been more important for South African businesses and individuals to choose the right jurisdiction for long term financial planning.
Looking ahead to the future
We are all hoping that the global rollout of vaccines will provide the pathway to some form of return to normality and all the things people are missing will be back. Like amidst all periods of immense turmoil, interesting, new possibilities have emerged such as the revolution in work culture and a renewed importance of being close to nature and green spaces is. And these possibilities can help reshape society for the better.
The global economic recovery and rebuild might seem further away in the current environment especially amidst the new lockdowns. But we are confident in the resilience of economies and are hopeful that different industrial sectors and governments working together would result in green shoots.
The financial services industry has an important role to play in getting the world economy back on its feet. It is a core component of the solution to continue facilitating the financing of corporates, as well as to develop sustainable finance and nurture digital technologies which have proven to be vital during the pandemic. The sector should continue its cooperation and collaboration with governments and regulators to ensure efficient capital flows and financial stability for businesses and individuals.
Banks too have a crucial role to play as they are instrumental to the effective transmission of monetary policies and stimulus packages. As mentioned in a report by EY: “Financial insecurity in the wake of COVID-19 will require banks to boost consumer confidence and help build a more resilient working world.”
We expect the Isle of Man’s financial services sector and banks to continue navigating the situation with resilience as they have been doing thus far and contributing to the global recovery process. Also, we truly hope this will be our busiest year ever (subject to our ability to travel), with an extensive global schedule of planned activity to promote the Island as an international financial centre of excellence and innovation. Personally, I had planned to be in South Africa for the British & Irish Lions tour, but regrettably, it might not take place and as such we will look forward to catching up with friends there as and when we can.
No doubt, there are significant challenges for the world ahead but as Albert Einstein said: “in the midst of every crisis lies great opportunity”. And it is this opportunity that we all need to work together to identify and make the most of. We are confident that in 2021 the Isle of Man will continue to support financial services businesses help their clients, employees, and the wider society through these surreal times. We are all in this together.
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