By David Rimmer, Research Associate at Leading Edge Forum
Originally offered as a better way to build IT systems, cloud itself did not transform the business. Fundamentally, Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS), as its name suggests, represented a new service model. IaaS brought a radical change in the commercial model for IT (rent vs. buy) and in the time taken to provision IT (instant self-service vs. the months of a standard procurement cycle), but ultimately the same system was still operating in a datacentre somewhere. ‘Lifting and shifting’ systems to the cloud delivered no discernible value for customers. At best, cloud enabled enterprises to provide value indirectly through ability to develop capabilities faster, for example by re-engineering and migrating systems to the cloud to harness its flexibility and speed.
This is absolutely not the case now. Cloud today is as much about delivering business capabilities as it is about IT. The hyperscalers are rapidly building out the range and number of services that they offer. For instance, at the end of 2017, AWS offered around 90 services; today the number is 225. The hyperscalers have expanded their portfolio of tools for developers to build cloud-native applications, thereby enabling more rapid development and testing, but the crucial departure from around 2017 onwards has been the addition of value-adding business components. In particular, the hyperscalers are building specialist services targeted at the major technology trends – for example: blockchain, Internet of Things, edge computing, immersive real-time experiences through 5G, streaming and visualisation, machine learning and artificial intelligence, unstructured data extraction and analysis, digital identity management, marketing analytics and automation.
The hyperscalers are also adding industry-focused solutions – for instance in banking: fraud APIs, payment services, financial data services and solutions optimised for specific core banking systems. Yet, for many, this mental transition has not yet been made, with people continuing to think that cloud is all about IaaS, when today it is as much about business components, and, in future, this will be even more so.
Developing your cloud strategy – it’s not just about IT, it’s about shaping the business
You can capitalise on the hyperscalers’ huge investment by intercepting their development path,
gaining momentum in the market by exploiting the newest cloud services and avoiding investment
in custom-building capabilities that will soon be available as a utility. At a higher level, you will want
to understand which components with rich business value will soon be forthcoming so that you can
short-cut the traditional product development cycle and afterwards ride a wave of future upgrades and enhancements.
Wardley mapping is a valuable aid in developing a strategy that makes optimal use of external capabilities and focuses a bank’s resources on the areas that will deliver the greatest return. In the Wardley map below, we have picked out just a fraction of the public cloud services now available for the banking industry to illustrate how cloud components can directly transform customer products and services, or provide capabilities for internal customers (developers, data scientists, UX designers, analysts, etc.). The vertical axis of the map reflects the degree to which a capability adds value to end customers: the horizontal axis shows the evolution of technology as it passes through stages from genesis, to custom-built, product and utility.
Capabilities that are new to the market (such as voice banking and blockchain-enabled asset management) feature in the genesis stage of the map. Under the custom-built stage come capabilities that are more mature but still highly unique to an individual enterprise, such as development of models and analytics on unstructured data. In the product column, capabilities are very similar from one bank to another, with a less direct yet still significant scope to impact end-customer services – for example, through faster product iteration.
Assembling cloud services to deliver cloud-native business capabilities in the banking environment
The increasing availability of business components opens up the prospect of cloud-native business capabilities that from the very start are conceived, designed and delivered through the cloud. Cloud-native business capabilities represent a higher level of abstraction than cloud-native applications. As a result, cloud-native business capabilities go that much further in enabling the speed, experimentation and ability to scale that underpin the competitiveness of a 21st Century Bank as it strives to bring new products and services to market in ever shorter cycles. In addition, cloud-native business capabilities change the role of the IT Function from developer-intensive build to more automated assembly of components
So, what does this look like in practice? The Fundamental Review of the Trading Book (FRTB) is a set of rules, introduced under Basel III, to standardise the treatment of market risk and impose stricter capital requirements. In order to comply with FRTB, the main steps that banks need to take are develop enhanced risk models; populate models with bank positions and market data, such as prices and credit ratings; and run the models.
Banks can assemble capabilities from the cloud to meet FRTB in a faster and more effective manner than is possible using traditional solutions:
- Faster model development cycles allow “strats” to tune their models to reduce the amount of capital that the bank needs to hold.
- Common real-time reference data removes the need for the disparate reference data and interfaces to be found in most banks. The result is reduced cost, less complexity and standardisation between different parts of the bank.
- Since FRTB requires an increase in the number of models and their complexity, greater compute capacity is necessary (some experts project a twenty-fold increase). Moreover, risk models are run only on an occasional basis to provide internal and regulatory reports, the burst capacity of cloud compute is a natural fit for running FRTB models. In contrast, traditional infrastructure would be sized for the peak, with substantial capacity remaining idle for most of the time.
By adopting a cloud delivery model to address FRTB, banks not only minimise their upfront investment and speed implementation, but going forward have greater flexibility, with ability to scale to meet new demands and capitalise on future investment by the cloud providers in model development and data services.
All this potential to exploit cloud for new products and services comes with a colossal proviso. Today’s catalogue of public cloud solutions can make a direct contribution to new products and services, but fundamentally what they offer is a basket of much more sophisticated components. These components still have to be assembled and configured. Business capabilities have to be built: processes redesigned, staff trained in new skills, culture aligned, new KPIs put in place, new organisation structures set up. Of course, for anyone with experience of business transformation this is no surprise.
The changing roles of business and IT leaders
At this point, it is clear that the transformation from build to assembly is of such a wide-ranging and fundamental nature that the active intervention of CEOs, COOs, CFOs and other business leaders is essential. However, the success in driving a cloud business strategy (as opposed to a cloud IT strategy) entails major changes in the roles of business and IT leaders.
CEOs, COOs & Boards
- Cloud business strategy – Once a cloud strategy has the potential to become a business-shaping strategy rather than an IT strategy, responsibility clearly needs to sit at the top of the enterprise. Here, vision and imagination in how and where to combine components that bring differentiation will be vital. Of equal importance will be championing this new perspective on how business capabilities can be built and challenging where traditional custom-build approaches are being applied without sound reasoning.
- Vendor strategy – As the richness of capabilities and the ease of integration between them increases, so critically does vendor dependence. This greatly raises the importance of vendor strategy. When you needed a vendor strategy for each level of the stack or each significant component, this responsibility sat in IT and procurement. If you are buying the entire stack and non-interchangeable modules with rich business capability – potentially across huge spans of your business – then these vendor strategies and relationships will sit at CEO or Board level.
- Operating model and culture – Some of the biggest barriers to strategy execution will be your existing operating model and culture. Both will require transformation in order to harness the potential to assemble business components from the cloud, rather than build systems and capabilities in-house using traditional tools and processes. Without drive from the top to change culture and operating models, any cloud strategy will remain still-born.
Business unit leaders & their IT partners
- Market insight – A critical role of business leaders and their IT partners is to understand where genuine differentiation can be gained in the market and how the current and future products of the cloud vendors can be assembled to enable this differentiation; or, alternatively, where custom-build and niche industry capabilities are the answer. In this process, it will be essential to understand the wider cloud strategy of your organisation so that you can see what capabilities have been or will be adopted elsewhere. This will drive re-use and simplification, which in turn bring lower costs and greater speed. Finally, business unit leaders and their IT partners will need close relationships with niche industry software companies and other IT firms to see where they can bring unique capabilities or act as partners in developing new solutions.
IT leaders & their teams
- Advice – With cloud strategy becoming a business issue, CIOs and their teams will play a vital role in educating and advising their colleagues about cloud capabilities and the individual cloud vendors. The industrialisation of IT through assembling rather than building components is a far cry from traditional models, so the extent of education and explanation that will be required should not be underestimated.
- Orchestration – As focus moves from build to assembly, the CIO and his or her team will become orchestrators of change. This is both in a literal sense by laying the technical foundations to assist assembly and inter-operation of cloud across the enterprise, and in a figurative sense through shaping and combining strategies from across the enterprise to ensure standards and re-use that are essential to low costs and flexibility. In fulfilling this role, definition of business and technical architectures will be essential, as these architectures will describe components and how they are combined.
- Vanguard of change – CIOs and their teams will play an essential role in galvanizing the organisation and acting as the vanguard for change. They will need to be cheerleaders for the changes in operating model and culture that are key to transformation. In addition, CIOs will on occasion need to recognise when traditional functions of the IT function (such as build and control) are a hindrance and they need to step aside to let business units take the lead.
Some practical steps to building your cloud strategy
So, what is your public cloud strategy? Here are some of the key questions that you will need to answer:
- What are the new products and services that will add most value to our internal and external customers?
- Which components are available from the cloud to support new products and services?
- How does the map look for each of the hyperscalers – they each have very different strengths and strategies – and which will provide the best fit for our business?
- How many cloud providers will we use? Will we go deep with one to drive fast and transformational change? Or will we partner with several to tap into different streams of innovation and maintain leverage in negotiations?
- In which areas will we want to devote our own resources to custom-build differentiating capabilities that cannot be sourced from elsewhere?
- Where will we use partners to assemble and manage cloud components because they bring distinct experience and skills, and/or the capabilities in question do not deliver meaningful difference in our customers’ eyes?
- What changes are required in the enterprise’s operating model to take advantage of potential to build cloud native applications and assemble (rather than build) cloud-native business capabilities?
- What does our composite map look like?
- Where do we begin?
Ignore it at your peril
The failure to see cloud for what it is and what it has to offer is currently widespread. However, experience shows that banks that can define a strong cloud strategy, and act on the business transformation needed in order to make it a reality, open up the potential for a market-leading competitive advantage. Building new products and services and replacing aging infrastructure, they are able to respond rapidly to market demands with low technical, regulatory and financial risks. Cloud is ready for banking. Banks now just need to decide whether they can really afford to ignore the opportunity.
Over a quarter of Brits now have an account with a digital-only bank
The number of Brits with a digital-only bank account has gone up by a percentage increase of 16%
Almost 1 in 6 Brits (17%) plan to open a digital bank account over the next 5 years
The top reason for opening an account was the convenience of banking online for the third year running
However, 16% of traditional banking customers who aren’t planning to switch said their bank had been helpful during the COVID pandemic
Currently over a quarter of Brits (27%) say they have at least one bank account with a digital-only bank, according to personal finance comparison site finder.com.
This is a percentage increase of 16% from last year when 23% of Brits said they had an account with a digital bank. It is also over 3 times the amount of Brits who had one in January 2019 (9%).
Finder’s 2019 research found that 24% of Brits intended to have a digital-only account by 2024. However with 27% now having an account, Brits have gone digital 3 years earlier than expected.
A further 17% of Brits intend to join them over the next 5 years, with 11% planning to do so over the next year. This could mean that 44% of Brits could have an account with a digital bank by 2026. If this percentage were applied to the UK adult population, it would equal almost 23 million people.
The top reason for opening an account continues to be convenience that digital-only banks provide, for the third year running (26%). The second most common reason was that users needed an additional account and setting up a digital account seemed to be the easiest option (20%). Customers also wanted to transfer money more easily (19%), making this the third biggest priority.
People wanting a trendy card is still driving signups as well, with 1 in 10 (10%) existing, or future, customers citing this as a reason to get an account.
Despite the increase in digital-only banking customers, the numbers who aren’t considering one have actually risen. Last year, 23% of respondents said they aren’t considering a digital-only bank account, but this has risen substantially to 42% in the latest survey.
This is likely a result of increased customer loyalty, 58% of those without a digital bank account said they felt as though their incumbent bank had treated them well and therefore had no desire to open a digital bank account. Additionally, 16% felt as though their incumbent bank had performed particularly well during the pandemic.
Over a third (36%) of those without a digital bank account said they had not decided to bank with digital providers because they preferred to be able to speak to someone in branch.
Digital banks are still most popular with younger generations, 46% of gen Z say they currently have a digital bank account, with a further 28% intending to get one over the next 5 years. This would mean that by 2026 just under three quarters of gen Z (73%) could have a digital bank account.
To see the research in full visit: https://www.finder.com/uk/digital-banking-adoption
Commenting on the findings, Matt Boyle, banking specialist at finder.com said:
“This research shows that digital-only banks are here to stay, with the number of users in the UK rising for 3 years straight. On top of this, Starling and Revolut announced this year that they have made a profit for the first time, really demonstrating that digital banks are starting to become a serious part of the banking furniture.
“The pandemic has also played a role in the rapid digitalisation of the banking industry, with those who had never experienced online banking having no other choice but to take their finances online. It seems that Brits are starting to realise the convenience that can come with digital banking and this is reflected in our research.”
Finder commissioned Censuswide on 6 to 8 January 2021 to carry out a nationally representative survey of adults aged 18+. A total of 1,671 people were questioned throughout Great Britain, with representative quotas for gender, age and region
The Impact of the Digital Economy on the Banking and Payments Sector
By Gerhard Oosthuizen, CTO Entersekt.
New banking regulations, digital consumers, the eradication of passwords, contactless technology – these are just some of the trends that will shape financial services and payments in 2021, writes Entersekt CTO, Gerhard Oosthuizen.
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, traditional businesses have been compelled to further undergo the digital transformation to meet the needs of a consumer base largely confined to their homes. Indeed, we estimate that there has been a 30% growth in the digital space. With this acceleration towards a digital world, banking, transacting and payment trends have and will continue to be redefined into 2021.
We have witnessed a rising number of digital first timers. That is, people signing up for online banking and e-commerce, whilst progressively shifting away from traditional channels. Businesses that have previously depended on walk-in stores and having a physical presence have also had to recognise that online transactions are now the new norm, and to adjust accordingly.
Whereas in the past, registering a customer for a service could take place in a shop, a booth or a branch, today it has become more important than ever to have a remote digital registration option available as well. Even working behaviour has changed considerably, with many businesses accommodating for remote working in the long term.
This is what sets the scene for 2021 – people expect to work from home as well as carry out their transactions from home.
Banking and Payment Trends in 2021
The use of contactless technology is undeniably growing, but on top of more people tapping with their cards, we are also seeing much more engagement with QR payments. A technology already frequently employed in Asia, we know QR codes can work. It would enable consumers to authenticate themselves when making a transaction without needing a PIN pad. More importantly, it allows consumers to gain complete control of their transactions from their own device and have an overall richer experience. Recognising this, we anticipate noteworthy developments in QR and NFC-enabled tap and go payments over the next year.
In light of FIDO (Fast Identity Online) and the ever-expanding network of FIDO-compliant solutions, we also expect the emergence of entirely passwordless systems. Organisations will likely begin enlisting customers by way of biometric authentication through devices and digital identities that already exist, such as banking apps. Long gone will be the days of having to remember numerous passwords, only to forget and reset them again. That is the idea anyway.
In 2021, there will probably be a pronounced adoption of delegated authentication as well, whereby
merchants as opposed to traditional issuing banks will take the reins of authenticating e-commerce payments. In this way, consumers will be offered a greatly improved online shopping experience with a simple and intuitive checkout that acts as an extension of the retail brand.
The Challenge of PSD2
While each of these transitions will undoubtedly introduce growing pains, PSD2 will be among the most challenging. Europe is already going through PSD2 now, implementing a number of regulations that is opening up competition in banking and electronic payment services. However, on the 1st of January 2021, these regulations will take a legal effect. At the end of the first quarter, so too will another set of regulations concerning 3-D authentication of card-not-present payments. Europe is simply not prepared to make this leap into “open banking”. As such, banks will face a tough year of struggles with regulators and competition from non-traditional quarters.
In fact, the process towards becoming PSD2-compliant is often arduous for banks and recoups hardly any additional revenue. Many banks see it as a competitive disadvantage as they are being forced to open up their systems and processes for the likes of Google, Facebook, Apple and many smaller niche fintech operations. Their valuable client data risks being taken by a challenger and used to on-board their accountholders.
Regardless of the commercial opportunities that open banking may provide, fraudsters will also endeavour to take advantage of this change and the weaknesses that will appear as systems open. With money moving faster, the faster it can be stolen too. We will likely see some reaction to this in 2021 as fraud returns to being a top priority for banks. Yet, whether through regulatory pressure or by market forces, open banking will become the new normal – and the world needs to prepare for this. Hopefully, many lessons will be learned from Europe’s experiences in 2021.
Next year is going to be about change – and managing that change without alienating already unsettled consumers. Organisations that have customer experience top of mind will emerge as winners, but they must nonetheless expect additional pressure from regulators, new competition, ever more digitally-demanding consumers, and no slowdown in technological innovation.
Protecting the digitally-excluded: biometric identification ensures access to payments in a cashless world
By Vince Graziani, CEO, IDEX Biometrics ASA
The events of this year have exacerbated a number of challenges for vulnerable members of our society. Fears over health have been compounded by the accelerated digitisation of activities in their daily lives, such as video calls with family, shopping online and mobile banking – activities they may have already been daunted by. Chief among these evolutions has been the pronounced lean away from the use of cash. With many not comfortable with the complexity and security of digital payments, banks must explore an alternative in the form of biometric identification.
COVID-19 and subsequent lockdown restrictions have not only made the handling of cash difficult, but even unsanitary. As a result, many retailers have either stated their preference for digital payments, or indeed forbidden the use of cash during transactions. As a result, the UK cash machine network, Link has reported a 55% drop in ATM usage over the course of 2020.
Meanwhile, in the US, a similar decline in cash has led to a rapid rise in digital payments and mobile payment apps, thanks to comparable regulations and an increase to the contact less payment limit of up to $250. According to recent research, 28% of US shoppers would avoid a retailer that doesn’t offer contactless payment options. That hesitation is causing a shift to digital payments, with the US mobile payment market expected to rise to $130.3 billion in 2020.
When the adoption of technology is accelerated so suddenly, it’s understandable that those vulnerable, older or even just reluctant and sceptical members of society aren’t thought about enough. The resultant fear of leaving vast swathes of people behind means we need a new touch-free payment solution that helps to comfortably and securely bridge their transition away from cash.
Who fears the transition, and why?
The idea of digital exclusion isn’t necessarily a new concern. In the UK, Which? has long been calling on the government to protect cash as a payment option, knowing that its eradication could negatively affect vulnerable members of our society.
Despite the concept of going cashless advancing, as many as 27% of UK consumers still operate only in cash, while across the Atlantic, 70% of US citizens regularly use cash. Looking globaly, research by the Global Index has explored the nascency of countries including India, Mexico, Nigeria and Pakistan in transitioning from cash to a digital banking system, finding that 1.7 billion adults around the world lack a bank account, while around 1 billion still pay their bills in cash.
Across the board, there is also a notable percentage of consumers who, while being banked, may struggle to maintain their financial independence. Old age or physical and mental health limitations can make the current transition difficult.
What if you can’t remember your PIN or your online banking password, or even your signature?
Banks must be aware that a wholesale veer away from cash isn’t going to suit or benefit all of their customers. They must therefore seek alternative options that still adhere to the trajectory towards touch-free payments, while addressing the above digital exclusion challenges that some will face during this transition.
A secure and convenient payment option
Rather than making payment transactions a game of memory or self-controlled security, the banking sector should look towards the benefits of biometric authentication. When incorporated into a bank card, fingerprint authentication offsets the need to put people under pressure to note down, secure, remember and then input various passwords, PINS or usernames. Instead, biometric authentication, through fingerprints, automatically and categorically links a person to their finances in the most understandable and seamless way possible.
For retailers it would ensure that the evolution away from cash can continue seamlessly; also meaning they’re less likely to lose out on an entire segment of the customer base. But, more importantly, for consumers, it provides a more safe, secure, immediate and convenient payment method that balances the positives between cash and digital payments.
It’s an ideal balance that relieves pressure on the digitally excluded. Vulnerable members of society will firstly be spared from a growing need to invest in expensive smartphones, or to learn complex digital banking features in order to carry out purchases.
Additionally, at a time where cash is potentially harmful to health, and equally at risk from a security perspective in the longer-term, they are able to make a safe step forward without any of the innovation headaches that might come with it.
The enrolment of biometric payment cards can even now take place remotely in people’s homes, making the transition even more seamless than the idea of extracting cash from ATMs.
Going beyond payments, biometric smart card solutions can also serve as the direct and unequivocal identification many would need to open a bank account, build credit and enhance their financial footprint, as seen in India’s Aadhaar biometric ID programme.
The solution to a prolific challenge
As we move away from cash and towards a world of digital payments, biometric payment cards provide the ideal balance of security, convenience and hygiene for touch-free transactions, without having to rely on expensive smartphones, mobile banking, or PINs.
Banks and payment providers must now embrace biometric payment cards to provide consumers with a secure and easily accessible means of touch-free payment. In doing so, financial exclusion will be one less critical factor to worry about as we transition to a cashless society.
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