By David Freuden
While encryption is the best protection in regards to privacy, protecting your personal data must begin with an action taken by you. Only through the lens of data ownership can we begin to answer the question of: “Who/What will protect my privacy?” It won’t be legislation, as governments themselves are often those who are seeking more information on their citizens. This may be taking place either directly or indirectly via coercion, legislation or subpoenas directed at the ever-growing number of corporations that collect, store and share your personal information.
The new field of blockchain-enabled encryption offers significant opportunity to improve privacy and the controls around it. However, it is important to understand that not all blockchains are privacy-conscious, and fewer still are those that are privacy-centric.
Privacy Blockchains: By Approach
Looking at blockchain through the lens of privacy there are two core categories, Transparency and Privacy:
Transparency: Bitcoin & Ethereum. No information is hidden. This is good for blockchain analysis and honesty, but It is bad for user protection and privacy. Block Explorers, an open-source web tool, allows anyone to view information about blocks, addresses, and transactions on the Bitcoin and Ethereum blockchains.
It is relatively easy using solely blockchain analysis and the addresses of known public entities (businesses, organizations) to discern what address a person may be associated with, and where the funds are coming from/going to. Worse yet, when you pay someone from an address owned by you, reverse lookups are possible using a blockchain explorer. This means anyone you send bitcoin to can then look-up your address and, in turn, know precisely the amount of bitcoin stored at that address.
Privacy: Monero&Zcash. These use different approaches than Bitcoin and Ethereum, but it is worth noting that they both need a certain degree of transparency. This transparency is necessary for the logistics of:
- a) Ensuring that transaction gets from A-B (and related auditing by third parties)
- b)Preventing double-spends and counterfeiting
The privacy-focused blockchains, regardless of approach, are bound together by a common value: Privacy should be a choice. Bitcoin’s transparency is viewed as problematic by all projects actively pursuing a means to keep information private, while also being posted publicly on a ledger. In a way, this is the closest realization to a tangible “use case” that exists in crypto, apart from the concept of a decentralized ledger.
Privacy-minded blockchains also have two important differentiating subsets:
◦ Opt-In Privacy: For example, Zcash, where all transactions are transparent by default. This results in (as of Nov 19th, 2019) roughly 87% of the Zcash network’s daily transaction volume being completely transparent. As a result, the latter 13% is much more easily deduced by analysts. You can see this on the Zcash explorer
With the “Opt-In” approach, transparency is the default. Privacy is an elected option.
◦ Opt-Out Privacy: For example, Monero, where all transactions are opaque by default.
This results in 100% of the network being opaque to onlookers with the exception of users who have chosen to share their information. Users may choose to do this for various reasons such as the need for a third-party audit. To do this on Monero’s network, users would provide a recipient’s address and a transaction-specific private key to that third party. These actions will make that transaction’s data visible to the party with whom this info is shared.
With the “Opt-Out” approach, privacy is the default. Transparency is an elected option.
The Benefit of Competing Solutions
Blockchain projects taking different approaches toward the solution of establishing of choice-centred privacy is critical. Not just with blockchain but for privacy globally. The topic of individual privacy continues to make headlines around the world and is already influencing governments to enforce new legislation that is designed to protect privacy, such as the GPDR that was introduced in May 2018. As blockchain continues to grow and be adopted around the world it’s important that this new technology provides improvements in privacy and control of privacy.
- The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is a regulation in EU law on data protection and privacy for all individual citizens of the European Union and the European Economic Area. It also addresses the transfer of personal data outside the EU and EEA areas.
As noted in my article ‘Privacy, Your Personal Information and How To Protect Them”, one of the most recent advances in technology that offers a significant advancement in privacy and security is Blockchain.
Leading Approaches toward a Privacy-Conscious Blockchain
The two examples mentioned previously, Zcash and Monero, are the two most well-known privacy coins in the market, being launched in 2016 and 2014 respectively. Their end goal is the same, but they use different mechanisms and approaches.
- Zcash (ZEC) is a fork of the Bitcoin protocol and attains privacy via the use of zk-SNARKS, a zero-knowledge privacy protocol.
- Monero (XMR)is a fork of Bytecoin, which has a completely different underlying protocol that Bitcoin called CryptoNote. Monero maintains the privacy of its senders, its transactions, and its receivers via ring signatures, ring confidential transactions, and stealth addresses respectively.
There are many other privacy-centric blockchains, most of which are forks from either Zcash or Monero. The reason for forking is that developers may believe there are significant improvements or advantages that can be offered to users. Forking into a new project from existing protocol enables new projects to keep the best of what exists and add new features and functionality towards the shared goal of user-controlled privacy and security. As a result, the most innovative projects are oftentimes more agile as a project than the blockchain titans they are forked from. Having a smaller userbase and ecosystem, they are able to react more quickly to newly arising issues and make changes with less notice and impact on their users.
Three projects of interest within the Zcash ecosystem, which epitomize innovation:
Komodo [KMD]: Komodo was launched prior to ZEC, after Zcash source code had been made public. Komodo has rolled out the Antara Framework for launching new blockchains and a full-featured test environment for blockchain development (KMD Labs). They also pioneered a mechanism called Delayed Proof of Work (DPOW) that secures smaller chains with the security of bitcoin. Komodo are in the alpha stages of development for a decentralized exchange built upon atomic swaps.
Hush [HUSH]: Hush recently migrated their codebase from ZEC-forked code, to a codebase derived directly from KMD’s prior work. Hush has created Hushlist, a means for users to communicate using zero-knowledge technology, similar to mailing lists. This can be used by journalists, whistleblowers, or anyone needing to communicate with many others, in a privacy-sensitive way. According to Hush’s lead developer, Duke Leto:
“Hush was the first Zcash Protocol coin to remove the 1.6GB download requirement prior to syncing, which in addition to it having the smallest on-disk chain size of ~1GB, makes [it] the most bandwidth-efficient fork”.
PirateChain: PirateChain boasts the largest anonymity set of any functioning network, and are currently the only ZEC-derived codebase that takes on privacy from an Opt-Out perspective (i.e. by default — users must opt-out by sharing a viewkey). PirateChain is also a member of the KMD ecosystem.
Several projects from Monero’s ecosystem, that epitomize innovation:
Swap [XWP]: Swap is also derived from Monero and inherits privacy from RingCT and the CryptoNote protocol. Swap’s most innovative contribution is their implementation of a completely different mining algorithm, Cuckaroo29s. Cuckoo cycle (PoW algorithm) is only 42 lines of code in its complete specification. This means that not only is Swap’s code more easily audited by external parties, but its block verification is much faster than those based on the CryptoNightPoW algorithm.
Other Forks: Even Monero developers acknowledge the advantages of smaller, light-weight forks in making innovative changes. Most Monero forks are created by developers from the internal group of XMR’s main contributors. Many of these function as testing beds for prospective features on Monero. Projects in this subgroup include Masari, Aeon, and Wownero to name only a few.
Blur [Blur]: is a fork from Monero’s codebase. As a result, both chains choose Opt-Out privacy by default. Blur provides a refreshingly different perspective on the issue of specialized mining hardware than the typically-seen “ASIC-resistance” ideal. ASIC-resistance is something that has attracted criticism from entities like Coinbase, recently.
Blur plans to feature a multi-PoW ecosystem, incorporating multiple self-similar proof-of-work blockchains. The idea is to create separate faction-based chains for specialized hardware, that are more advantageously mined by the respective devices. Targeting key differences in chip design, and using independent chains to isolate hardware with incentives, The Blur Network plans to provide an inclusive ecosystem for all mining hardware, in a more logically competitive manner.
How robotic technology will disrupt the manufacturing industry
By Marga Hoek, author of The Trillion Dollar Shift
Robotics technology has the potential to disrupt industries across all sectors – but its impact on the manufacturing industry will be transformative. Not only can robots increase productivity, efficiency and profit margins but adopting this tech for good will be a key way for the manufacturing industry to transition to a more sustainable future.
Driving productivity & efficiency
Manufacturing processes are faster, more efficient, and more cost-effective when humans and robots work together. Studies show that idle time is reduced by 85% when people work collaboratively with a human-aware robot, rather than in an all-human team. Modern robotic automation is key to reshaping production processes to become more efficient and reliable. They deliver significant benefits for companies and investment is often recouped within just 18 months.
Robots in manufacturing can allow businesses to monitor the production lines from anywhere and pinpoint issues quickly, allowing for production to continue smoothly and efficiently, ensuring companies surpass consumers’ expectations of supply chain speed and reliability. Intelligent industrial service robots are an upcoming industrial tool that will amplify manufacturing capabilities and allow businesses to safely operate faster, in places humans could never go, and with cognitive and physical capabilities not yet imagined.
Transitioning to a sustainable future
Robots are a vital way to reduce pollution and emissions from manufacturing operations. For starters, they reduce our reliance on larger vehicles and machines that are harmful to the planet. Robots’ ability to be extremely accurate and minimize errors is also hugely important in sustainability efforts to reduce waste. Robots also aid businesses in their energy-saving process because they do not require as much energy to operate as humans do. Where humans need facilities with sufficient lighting and heat, robots can work under cold and dark conditions. This drastically reduces the amount of energy used in the manufacturing production process. It is estimated that for every 1C reduced in factory heat levels, there is a potential saving of up to 8%. In addition, up to 20% of energy savings can be reached if the plant turns off any unnecessary lighting.
Case Study: GE
Tech giant GE is a brilliant example of how robotics technology can both boost the bottom line and sustainability.
GE is at the forefront of robotics manufacturing technology. Their value proposition is tightly tied to productivity in field service and manufacturing and offers potential cost savings within operations. While delivering industrial-grade service robotic systems that enable automation, productivity and safety for GE and its customers, the company works closely with GE business units, GE customers and strategic partners across the globe to envision, shape and build intelligent robotic technologies from idea to commercialization.
GE’s recent $125 million investment project at its Decatur refrigerator plant boosted production capacity, added new “smart” technology and increased the site’s workforce. This includes auto guided vehicles, or AGVs, that move materials through the assembly process and more than 50 robots that perform heavy lifting operations and repetitive tasks.
The expansion project, announced in June 2018, allowed GE Appliances to increase production to meet growing demand for its freezer-refrigerators, which are top-rated in the industry for both quality and reliability. The expansion created 255 jobs, bringing total employment at the plant to 1,300. The project boosts production capacity by 25 % and ensures early compliance with 2022 refrigerant changes, making the Alabama plant a super site for GE. GE Appliances said Industry 4.0 technology additions at the Decatur facility include data visualization, 3-D scanning, rapid prototyping and other smart automation that provides the operations team with real-time data to make better and faster decisions.
Achieving the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals
Utilizing robotics technology within the manufacturing industry can help to meet the UN’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for a healthier planet, to be met by 2030:
SDG 3 – Good Health & Wellbeing: Collaborating with people, service robots work with shoulder-to-shoulder and over long distances, to fulfil dull, dirty and dangerous work.
SDG 8 – Decent Work & Economic Growth: Presenting new growth opportunities for businesses and creating new jobs at manufacturing plants
SDG 9 – Industry, Innovation & Infrastructure: Manufacturing value proposition of robotics ties tightly to productivity and brings potential cost savings into those operations.
SDG 12 – Responsible Production & Consumption: Providing a new and rich data source for companies to produce products responsibly
Marga Hoek is a global thought-leader on sustainable business, international speaker and the author of The Trillion Dollar Shift, a new book revealing the business opportunities provided by the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals. The Trillion Dollar Shift is published by Routledge, in hardback and e-book. For more information go to www.margahoek.com
RPA, the software robots that finance and banking professionals need to hear about.
By Rory Gray, Vice President of Sales at leading software automation firm, UiPath, explains what role Robotic Process Automation (RPA) can play in improving the efficiency of finance and banking departments.
Pre-coronavirus, the finance and banking industries were already facing a myriad of challenges. Now, this myriad is quickly becoming ever more complicated. There is increasing pressure to react to declining business health, be flexible to changing customer behaviour and to adapt to evolving workforce dynamics.
Unfortunately, for these teams, improving agility is easier said than done. Many processes involve legacy systems, paper-based documents and unstructured data. These processes are time-consuming and mundane, leaving finance and banking professionals hard-pressed to fit in client-centric and strategic work.
Take processing invoices. The way it’s done hasn’t changed for years in many organisations. It often involves a member or members of the finance team receiving the invoice by mail or email, approving it manually, printing, signing and submitting it to Accounts Payable. An AP Clerk then has to pick it up, read it, verify the approvals, extract the data and input it into to the accounting package. This all takes time and costs money. What’s more, it’s dull and prone to errors. People don’t want to spend their days doing it.
Imagine if processes such as invoicing, but also loan processing, credit card disputes and many more, could be automated. Finance and banking teams would spend much less time copying, pasting and printing and could refocus on business health and transformation.
RPA is the key to finding more time in the day
Robotic Process Automation or RPA, is software that can work just like a human. It can use AI capabilities to read and interpret data from both physical and digital documents. It can extract the necessary information and it can transfer this to multiple IT applications. It’s a software robot – or digital assistant.
For finance and banking professionals, RPA could help them break free from the time constraints caused by inefficient and complex legacy operations by passing rule-based repetitive tasks to software robots. This saves time and money – and allows people to focus on the tasks that can make a difference to the business.
RPA can help carry the burden of compliance
With data extracted, processed and formatted by software robots, employees will also no longer have to carry the full and heavy burden of compliance.
However accurate we aim to be, the reality is that processing data is always open to mistakes. This is exacerbated by ever shifting market regulations. Software robots, however, are programmed by finance and banking professionals to strictly follow the same steps every time and thus do not fall victim to the same blunders as all humans inevitably do.
Of course, many regulatory compliance functions will often need to involve some human validation or decision making. While the robots work around the clock without fatigue to complete tasks, professionals can still intervene if there is an inaccuracy that requires the personal touch or a loop in the workflow where a decision is needed. Therefore, time-consuming compliance tasks can be passed to software robots, but humans ultimately remain in control.
This in turn provides better risk management and compliance, higher accuracy, better cycle times and improved throughput.
RPA in practice
This may all sound very futuristic, but in practice, many firms are already using RPA to free up employee time, improve compliance and save money.
For example, a leading smart infrastructure solutions firm we work with has created a software robot affectionately named Archie, which has taken over the responsibility for processing all invoices.
Pre-Covid, the 400,000 invoices received by the firm each year were dealt with manually. With Archie this is now fully automated freeing up on average 11 minutes per invoice of time which employees can now use to focus on value-adding activities. It also means that no employee needs to come into the office to process the invoice, nor does any paper need to be passed around the team. Thus helping to keep the workforce safe.
With all this extra time, finance and banking departments can focus on adapting to and thriving in the current crisis. Moving away from data processing and towards advisory roles where they can best use their strategic skills.
Consequently, businesses will benefit during the pandemic and beyond and employees could see their roles shifting away from the mundane and towards tasks that keep them on their toes. A rare win-win in a difficult time.
WeWALK joins Microsoft’s AI for Accessibility Programme Using artificial intelligence to change the lives of the visually impaired
WeWALK, the smart cane designed for people who are blind or with low vision which is now in use across 37 markets, has joined Microsoft’s AI for Accessibility programme to accelerate WeWALK’s capability by developing and validating a human behaviour model for visually impaired users and creating a Voice Assistant designed for the visually impaired, providing the right mobility information when needed and allowing for even greater control of the WeWALK mobility experience.
Microsoft’s AI for Accessibility $25 million 5-year programme is aimed at harnessing the power of AI to amplify human capability for the more than one billion people around the world with disabilities. Through grants, technology, and AI expertise, the program aims to accelerate the development of accessible and intelligent AI solutions and build on recent advancements in Microsoft Cognitive Services to help developers create intelligent apps that can see, hear, speak, understand and interpret people’s needs.
WeWALK’s new Voice Assistant will be released later in 2020 and will have immediate usability benefits, improving the user’s confidence as they mobilise. The assistant will be built on clearly derived requirements and natural usage patterns and the challenge that WeWALK is seeking to overcome is to make the assistant truly ‘smart’ and dynamic, where it will effectively categorize and deliver on the user’s commands in a host of different environments.
WeWALK’s human behaviour model is due for release in 2021 and is of significant importance as currently there are no accurate models for how a person who is blind moves and how their mobility holistically evolves, especially after receiving orientation and mobility training. As a result, healthcare, government, and mobility trainers cannot effectively track how a person who is blind mobilizes and whether or not intervention has had benefit. By using WeWALK’s built-in IMU (inertial measurement unit) sensors, including the gyroscope, accelerometer, and compass, as well as data collected from a connected smartphone, the model can be implemented and expanded organically through daily usage. The first stage will be rigorous data collection and user testing, followed by data manipulation and classification to ensure that optimum reliability and system usability can be achieved.
Commenting upon WeWALK’s entry into the program Jean Marc Feghali, R&D Lead at WeWALK. “By working on these two objectives, WeWALK can set the standard for visually impaired mobility for both the individual user and the organisations that support them. We are now rigorously collecting mobility data with novel experimentation, validating our work by continuously engaging our users to ensure an exceptional product powered by Microsoft’s best. Being a part of the Microsoft family truly excites us, bringing us closer to mobility trainers, researchers, and the global visually impaired community.”
Mary Bellard, principal innovation architect lead at Microsoft adds “At Microsoft, we believe AI solutions built thoughtfully by and with the disability community have incredible potential to offer meaningful independence in people’s daily lives. That’s why we’re thrilled to support WeWALK on this important assistive tool that stands to empower the millions of people around the world who use a white cane.”
With the power of Microsoft AI, WeWALK’s impact will be wide-reaching explains Kürşat Ceylan, WeWALK’s co-founder & CPO “As a blind person from birth, I know that it is very important to get the right habits of using a cane from a young age. It is amazing to see how WeWALK can enhance this aspect of our lives with high tech, making training and orientation more effective. I believe that the smart cane will be a symbol for the fully independent journey people who are blind or with low vision.”
Selected as one of the best inventions of 2019 by TIME Magazine, WeWALK is a member of YGA Ventures, which is an ecosystem of impact entrepreneurs. The team envisions WeWALK as a platform for continuous and collaborative development, putting it at the forefront of cutting-edge assistive technologies. This is exemplified through WeWALK’s collaboration with Microsoft, where WeWALK participated in Microsoft’s 2019 AI for Good in the UK.
The WeWALK smart cane is currently available on the market and can be purchased on the company website www.wewalk.io. The free WeWALK mobile app which provides various features such as VIP friendly navigation and public transport tracking capabilities is also available for immediate download on both iOS and Android devices.
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