- Rapid urbanisation presents challenges, but also opportunities for business, society and sustainable growth
- Key challenges include: infrastructure delivery and housing provision, increasing local revenues, attracting investment, equity and sustainability
- Opportunities include: capitalising on the urbanisation productivity ‘dividend’, using technology to create new solutions and harnessing the green growth potential of efficient cities
With 1.5 million people moving into the world’s cities every week, there will be an additional 2 billion new urban citizens by 2050 – mostly concentrated in developing countries. In these regions, constraints on government skills, finance and institutions to deliver sustainable growth are already leading to unplanned and unmanaged growth. This places an enormous strain on infrastructure investment, the environment, social structures and municipal services.
This tidal wave of rapid urbanisation is now a global issue, as demonstrated at the Habitat III summit in October this year where the United Nations agreed and adopted a New Urban Agenda – a radical set of commitments ranging from local economic planning to urban design.
But there is currently minimal guidance on what better urbanisation actually looks like. PwC’s megatrends series explores the implications of rapid urbanisation for business and society.
Currently, the highest levels of urbanisation are in the developing countries of the Global South – Africa, Asia, Latin America – where medium sized cities will experience the greatest growth by 2050. Emerging cities have an opportunity to capture a dividend that creates jobs, raises productivity, reduces infrastructure costs and environmental impact, while supporting new enterprise and shared prosperity.
In these countries PwC leads an alliance that delivers the UK-funded support facility Infrastructure and Cities for Economic Development, (ICED), which is helping to shape and influence better urbanisation and infrastructure development in a range of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
But these benefits are not automatic. Uncontrolled rapid urbanisation presents acute challenges for national and local governments, including raising local revenues, investing in infrastructure, property provision and improving sustainability.
Dan Dowling, city & urbanisation director at PwC, commented:
“We are seeing growing levels of competition between cities for talent, investment and business.
“Increasingly, the ability to compete successfully depends on much more than creating a regulatory or fiscal environment attractive to inward investment. Cities’ primary draw has traditionally been employment opportunities, but now people are attracted by the quality of life a city has to offer.”
To improve quality of life for all residents, cities need to increase their local revenue to fund their investment in open space, leisure and cultural facilities. Tax collection, distributing the proceeds of new development and generating income stream from services like parking and permits, all contribute to this.
Investing in good infrastructure is fundamental to fast-growing cities. PwC estimates that $78 trillion in global infrastructure is necessary over the next 10 years to accommodate this growth, with New York, Beijing, Shanghai and London needing $8 trillion in infrastructure investments alone.
Housing is another challenge for cities. From London to Addis Ababa, the pressure to supply affordable housing is reaching critical status.PwC analysis on affordability in London for 20-39 year olds found that, without family assistance, it would take 18 years of saving to afford a home in the capital. Even more pressing is the 60% of Africa’s urban population living in poorly serviced and economically isolated informal settlements.
Dan Dowling said:
“Solving this issue will require innovation, particularly in new models for land administration and the development of functional property markets.
“Leveraging the role of the private sector to develop affordable and sustainable housing will also be key requiring national, regional and city governments to work more closely with businesses.”
Environmental factors also have a significant impact on economic activity. PwC says cities need to become cleaner, resilient and more environmentally efficient to prosper. The integrated and compact design of transport, infrastructure and land use is at the core of providing a foundation for a truly sustainable city.
Technology can help cities get smarter and cope with rapid urbanisation. From App-based transport solutions to municipal data collection using smart phones, technology offers new ways to deliver public services.
Dan Dowling concluded:
“Technology can bring real transformative potential to both developed and developing cities. But while recent technological advances offer exciting solutions to urbanisation challenges, they should not be an end in themselves. Solutions are contextual to municipal resources and also societal structures and social norms.
“Our primary contribution to this important global problem is how to shape the nature and character of the cities so that they are able to expand efficiently, affordably and equitably over the long term.
“For the New Urban Agenda to succeed, it’s crucial that we engage not only the policy makers, but also those people and institutions that can help deliver it including the private sector.”
Estate planning for wealthy celebrities or UHNWIs
By Sean Sheridan, Client Director, ZEDRA Isle of Man
Estate planning often gets pushed aside…sometimes with disastrous knock-on effects for a family. With today’s evolving regulatory environment, future planning can be challenging and often daunting.
Despite inevitable obstacles, there are ways to minimise the burden to enable even celebrities to have future generations enjoying the benefits of their wealth. In this article we explore why estate planning gets overlooked, and why it’s so important to protect prosperity and interests.
It’s easier to put off estate planning than you’d think – even for people like celebrities or UHNWIs who have earned significant wealth. For example, it’s thought that the great Diego Maradona passed away without leaving a Will or other plans for his assets, despite recent years of ill health. There were already reports of a contested estate just weeks after his funeral. Michael Jackson, Prince, James Gandolfini and Philip Seymore Hoffmann all passed away with various issues with their estates, despite having amassed fortunes.
It’s not disorganisation or a lack of desire that stops people planning their estate. In fact, often the last thing people want is to leave family or loved ones having to deal with probate and complex legal affairs at an already difficult time. Many people simply put off estate planning, thinking they will have time later…whenever that is. Alternatively, they may not comprehend how challenging it can be to untangle an intricate estate, and what legal rules there are that surround how an estate will automatically be divided amongst heirs and spouses if forced heirship laws apply. Equally, many people may not know that some loved ones may not get any assets or be looked after if provisions aren’t made in advance.
For UHNWI a properly planned estate can also mean more privacy for family at a challenging time. Many HNWI will choose – along with advisors – a structure that will allow for maximum confidentiality and will keep the details of the estate and any beneficiaries private. Information about beneficiaries of an estate becoming public can also make them a target for press or other unwanted attention. As structures which allow for both discretion and succession planning, trusts can be very popular for this reason.
Trusts also allow for settlors to stipulate the conditions under which beneficiaries may have access to or be given money from a trust.
Trusts allow the settlor the ability to lay out one or more conditions. For example, a settlor could put aside assets in trust to support beneficiaries but not make all the assets available to them at once. This might be to support good governance or simply to protect beneficiaries from some of the hazards associated with wealth, as perceived by the settlor.
Practically, this means a settlor and their advisors might look at different conditions for a trust’s assets. For example, beneficiaries might only receive a lump sum every 10 years. Alternatively, they might get a monthly pay-out, similar to a salary. The settlor might wish that funds are paid out to beneficiaries for the sole purpose of paying for their college education or to purchase a property.
Corporate trustees like ZEDRA ensure that the settlor’s wishes are met, and the assets of the trusts are used in the way the settlor would like and as laid out in the trust deed.
Planning ahead with advisors is vital – especially for anyone with a complex assets and interests that span various geographies may be complex in terms of nature, like IP rights.
Expert advice that’s tailored around an individual’s personal situation is a must, so thinking ahead is crucial. It’s never too early to make sure you’re planning your estate and making sure loved ones or important causes will be looked after when you’re gone.
Dollar edges lower as investors favor higher-risk currencies
By Stephen Culp
NEW YORK (Reuters) – The dollar lost ground on Friday as market participants favored currencies associated with risk-on sentiment over the safe-haven greenback.
Risk appetite was stoked by better-than-expected economic data and expectations that U.S. President Joe Biden’s proposed $1.9 trillion coronavirus relief package will come to fruition.
“The dollar’s down against other currencies but not by a whole lot,” said Oliver Pursche, president of Bronson Meadows Capital Management in Fairfield, Connecticut. “I expect the dollar to be where it is now at the end of the year, and the main reason for that is while I see some signs of improvement in the economy, monetary policy is going to stay where it is.”
“I don’t think the dollar is underpriced or overpriced,” Pursche added.
For the week, the dollar slid about 0.2% against a basket of world currencies, the euro was essentially flat, and the yen lost more than 0.5%. But the British pound advanced more than 1.1% against the dollar, its best week since mid-December.
Bitcoin continues soar to record highs. The world’s largest cryptocurrency was last up 6.6% at $54,961.67, hitting $1 trillion in market capitalization.
Its smaller rival, ethereum, was last up 0.7% at $1,953.28.
The digital currencies have gained about 89% and 1,420%, respectively, year to date, leading some analysts to warn of a speculative bubble.
“One concern I’ve always had (about cryptocurrencies) is how susceptible they are to manipulation,” Pursche said. “But they’re going to continue to gain legitimacy.”
“While it’s great that Tesla made an investment in bitcoin, I’m more intrigued by Blackrock and other major investment firms taking a hard look at cryptocurrencies as a viable investment.”
The Australian dollar, which is closely linked to commodity prices and the outlook for global growth, was last up 1.21% at $0.7863, touching its highest since March 2018.
The New Zealand dollar also gained, closing in on a more than two-year high, and the Canadian dollar advanced as well.
Sterling, which often benefits from increased risk appetite, rose to an almost three-year high amid Britain’s aggressive vaccination program. It had last gained 0.27% to $1.40.
The euro showed little reaction to a slowdown in factory activity indicated by purchasing manager index data, rising 0.21% to $1.2116.
The yen, gained ground against the dollar and was last at 105.495, creeping above its 200-day moving average for the first time in three days.
(Reporting by Stephen Culp, additonal reporting by Tommy Wilkes; editing by Jonathan Oatis)
Shares rise as cyclical stocks provide support; yields climb
By Saqib Iqbal Ahmed
NEW YORK (Reuters) – A gauge of global equity markets snapped a 3-day losing streak to edge higher on Friday, as the recent selling pressure on high-flying big technology-related stocks eased even as investors showed a preference for economically sensitive cyclical sectors.
Oil prices fell from recent highs as Texas energy companies began preparations to restart oil and gas fields shuttered by freezing weather, while the U.S. Treasury yields extended their recent rise.
The MSCI’s global stock index was up 0.47% at 681.88, after losing ground for three consecutive sessions.
On Wall Street, stocks steadied as cyclical sectors edged higher while tech names made modest advances after concerns about elevated valuations led to some selling in recent sessions.
“What we saw (this week) represents a market that is tired and may not do very much. So we are headed for some sort of a pullback, but I don’t think we’re there just yet,” said Peter Cardillo, chief market economist at Spartan Capital Securities in New York.
“Investors are not really pulling out of the market, but they are becoming more cautious. It already has factored in another good positive earnings season.”
The Dow Jones Industrial Average rose 119.97 points, or 0.38%, to 31,613.31, the S&P 500 gained 12.93 points, or 0.33%, to 3,926.9 and the Nasdaq Composite added 92.58 points, or 0.67%, to 13,957.93.
The S&P 500 technology and communication services sectors, housing high-value growth stocks, were among the smallest gainers in early trading, while financials, industrials, energy and materials rose more than 1%.
European shares edged higher on Friday as an upbeat earnings report from Hermes boosted confidence in a broader economic recovery. The pan-European STOXX 600 index was 0.64% higher.
U.S. Treasury yields on the longer end of the curve rose to new one-year highs on Friday as improved risk appetite boosted Wall Street, while the yield on 30-year inflation-protected securities (TIPS) turned positive for the first time since June.
Core bond yields have pushed higher globally, led by the so-called reflation trade, where investors wager on a pick-up in growth and inflation. Growing momentum for coronavirus vaccine programs and hopes of massive fiscal spending under U.S. President Joe Biden have spurred reflation trades.
The benchmark 10-year yield was last up 5.1 basis points at 1.338%, its highest level since Feb. 26, 2020.
Oil prices retreated from recent highs for a second day on Friday as Texas energy companies began preparations to restart oil and gas fields shuttered by freezing weather.
Unusually cold weather in Texas and the Plains states curtailed up to 4 million barrels per day (bpd) of crude oil production and 21 billion cubic feet of natural gas, analysts estimated.
Brent crude futures were down 28 cents, or 0.44%, at $63.65 a barrel, while U.S. West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude futures fell 66 cents, or 1.09%, to $59.86.
Copper jumped to its highest in more than nine years on Friday and towards a third straight weekly gain as tight supplies and bullish sentiment towards base metals continued after the Chinese New Year.
Spot gold XAU= was down 0.58% at $1,785.71 an ounce.
The dollar lost ground on Friday, extending Thursday’s decline as improved risk appetite sapped demand for the safe-haven currency and drew buyers to riskier, higher-yielding currencies. The dollar index was off 0.295%.
Bitcoin hit yet another record high on Friday, hitting a market capitalization of $1 trillion, blithely shrugging off analyst warnings that it is an “economic side show” and a poor hedge against a fall in stock prices.
(Reporting by Saqib Iqbal Ahmed; Editing by Nick Zieminski)
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