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What kind of trade relationship does Latin America share with the European Union




Goldman Sachs considered to be one of the leading investment banking and securities firm in the USA, has already declared that Brazil and Mexico will be among the six leading economies in the world.  So how does that impact the European Union? As far as the countries of Latin America are concerned (esp. Brazil and Mexico) they are dependent upon the European investments.

Latin America consists of several countries that include North America, Central America, Caribbean, South America, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, etc. among other nations. As far as the economy is concerned, there are countries (within the purview of Latin America) displaying strong economy with a stabilizing effect. Let us look at the Chile economy. The government of Chile has been working towards strengthening its economy and has already achieved its goal at large. With the study of globalization, the analysts’ have concluded that it consists of five factors: a) foreign trade, b) capital movement, c) exchange of technology and ideas, d) labor movements, and e) cultural integration.   And although the United States is still the main destination of Latin American and Caribbean exports, Asia is becoming an increasingly important market for goods based on natural resources.

With the ongoing globalization trend, wherein the policy-makers are looking into diversifying their economic opportunities to adopt structural reforms aimed at increasing productivity and thus boost real GDP growth. During the past four years, Latin America has attracted a yearly average of $61bn in foreign direct investment. Brazil is one of the countries in this region which has attracted a significant amount of foreign direct investments’. One of the biggest competitors of Latin America is China, which has emerged as a financial powerhouse catering to its consumers on major commodities. Another country facing strong competition from China on the trade front is Mexico.

One of the key responsibilities for the various nations in this region is to work towards fostering economic relations and Spain and Italy joint seem to be working towards it.

In fact, the businesses run in Latin America are also showing a positive trend towards welcoming wealth using foreign investments. Another trend followed by large economies is one country tying up with the other and thus land into a joint venture for a particular commodity.  For example, in 2006, Italy’s Fiat Group and the India’s Tata Motors established a joint venture to make passenger vehicles and engines in India. The following year, they extended their partnership to Latin America producing a Tata pick-up truck at Fiat’s factory in Cordoba, Argentina, with an investment of $80m.

With a much closer observation, analysts’ say that there are some of the major European corporations will be following the path tread by Latin America. A group of Small and Medium Enterprises are evolving in the European community promising new hikes in the global panorama. This European experience is now being widely studied in Latin America.

Brazil and Mexico are the key Latin American countries. As far as EU’s association with Mexico is concerned, they share an economic relationship that is 10 years old. However, EU is yet to establish a partnership with Brazil on such grounds. This is partly because of the never-ending negotiation process with Mercosur, the troubled Latin American customs union that is still incomplete. The EU therefore needs to urge its Latin American counterparts for further assimilation.

A full throttle towards a more liberalized and philanthropic Latin America can be attained by a concrete strategy as against the European strategies. Greater trade openness would be beneficial for economic growth. In order to achieve success in the trade front, the economists’ should work towards lowering the trade costs which will eventually target the tariffs and quotas and thus better trade flows. Most importantly, getting an unhindered market access can work wonders for Latin America. Let us take a look at the current exports and trade flow by Chile to other European countries. This has markedly increased with the establishment of the EU-Chile free trade area. But in the case of EU-Mexico trade liberalization, the growth of imports from the EU has exceeded the growth of exports to Europe, resulting in a widening Mexican trade deficit with the EU.

During the Rio Earth summit 1999, the European Union has promulgated the news that Latin America is one of their indispensable partners endeavoring strategic, political and economic aid to them. Although the EU does not have a strategic partnership with Brazil, it intends to do collaboration shortly.

The new start by the EU, focused on the two most important players, Brazil and Mexico, could prove a promising one, because of the “pull” effect it might have on the other countries. However, this must be accompanied by measures to keep all Latin American countries on board. Otherwise, Latin America may well prove to be Europe’s next missed business opportunity.


Guarantor loans surge to top of UK financial complaints chart



Guarantor loans surge to top of UK financial complaints chart 1

By Huw Jones

LONDON (Reuters) – Complaints about guarantor loans by companies such as Amigo soared last year, eclipsing grievances over payment protection insurance (PPI) that have dominated for more than a decade, Britain’s Financial Ombudsman Service (FOS) said on Wednesday.

Consumers have turned to loan providers since last March as lockdowns to fight the COVID-19 pandemic strained their finances.

“For more than a decade, the Financial Ombudsman Service received an unprecedented number of complaints about PPI. We’re now seeing thousands more complaints about credit – including about guarantor loans,” FOS said in a statement.

Guarantor loans require a friend or family member to guarantee they will take on repayments if the borrower falls behind. Complaints about this type of loan reached more than 10,000 in October to December, up from just over 300 in the same period a year before, the FOS said.

Complaints about other types of home credit jumped to over 6,000 from 430 over the same period.

The complaints about consumer loans usually focused on inadequate affordability checks, FOS said.

Amigo describes itself as Britain’s leader in guarantor loans. FOS said complaints about the company totalled 12,854 in the second half of 2020, up from 1,163 in the first half.

Amigo said it launched a scheme of arrangement, or court-approved compensation process, in January after receiving a high number of complaints last year.

“We are a new leadership team that wants to correct past mistakes in a way that is fair and equitable to all our customers – including our 700,000 past borrowers and guarantors,” Amigo said in a statement.

Provident Personal Credit Ltd was the second most complained about company, with 10,390 complaints in the second half of 2020, FOS said. Provident had no comment.

PPI became Britain’s costliest retail financial scandal that dominated FOS work until the final deadline for complaints passed in August 2019.

(Reporting by Huw Jones; editing by Barbara Lewis)

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Sunak promises to do ‘whatever it takes’ to shield the economy



Sunak promises to do 'whatever it takes' to shield the economy 2

LONDON (Reuters) – British finance minister Rishi Sunak plans to say in a budget speech on Wednesday that he will do “whatever it takes” to support the economy, and that the task of fixing the public finances will only begin once the country is recovering from the COVID-19 crisis.

“We’re using the full measure of our fiscal firepower to protect the jobs and livelihoods of the British people,” Sunak will say, according to excerpts of the speech to parliament released by the finance ministry on Tuesday.

“First, we will continue doing whatever it takes to support the British people and businesses through this moment of crisis,” he said in the excerpts.

“Second, once we are on the way to recovery, we will need to begin fixing the public finances – and I want to be honest today about our plans to do that. And, third, in today’s budget we begin the work of building our future economy.”

Britain has suffered the biggest COVID-19 death toll in Europe and the heaviest economic shock among big rich countries, according to the headline measures of official data, after shrinking by 10% last year, its worst slump in three centuries.

Sunak has so far spent almost 300 billion pounds ($419 billion) on emergency support measures and tax cuts.

But Britain has also rushed out Europe’s fastest COVID-19 vaccination programme, raising the prospect of an economic bounce-back once its current, third lockdown is relaxed.

Sunak said in media interviews on Sunday that he would not rush to start addressing Britain’s yawning budget deficit, which is approaching 400 billion pounds – its highest as a share of the economy since World War Two.

Prime Minister Boris Johnson plans to lift lockdown measures gradually, starting with next week’s reopening of schools in England, before most measures are removed by late June.

Sunak is expected to announce an extension of his emergency support measures, including huge income subsidies that are on track to cost more than 100 billion pounds, to provide a bridge for the economy until then.

But he has also said he will “level with people” about how Britain’s 2.1 trillion-pound debt pile would carry on growing without action, which is likely to mean future tax increases.

(Writing by William Schomberg; Editing by Catherine Evans)


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UK gilt issuance to be second-highest on record at almost 250 billion pounds – Reuters poll



UK gilt issuance to be second-highest on record at almost 250 billion pounds - Reuters poll 3

By Andy Bruce

LONDON (Reuters) – Britain is likely to sell nearly 250 billion pounds ($347 billion) of government bonds in the coming financial year – the second-highest total on record – to help power an economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic, a Reuters poll of dealers showed on Tuesday.

The survey of all 15 wholesale primary dealers, or banks tasked by the government with creating a market for its bonds, pointed to gilt issuance of about 247.2 billion pounds for the 2021/22 financial year starting in April.

Such a sum marks a sharp drop from the 485.5 billion pounds of gilts that the United Kingdom Debt Management Office (DMO) plans to issue in the current 2020/21 year to finance the economic response to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Finance minister Rishi Sunak is due to deliver his budget around 1230 GMT on Wednesday, after which the DMO will publish its 2021/22 gilt issuance remit.

Sunak has said he would not rush to fix the public finances as he readies a budget, which will add more borrowing to almost 300 billion pounds of COVID-19 spending and tax cuts.

In November, the Office for Budget Responsibility (OBR) forecast borrowing in 2020/21 would reach 393.5 billion pounds, or 19% of GDP, a peacetime record. The latest official data suggests borrowing will fall below this, partly because more taxpayers than expected have opted against deferring payments to 2021/22.

The poll showed Sunak is expected to announce a budget deficit forecast for 2021/22 of 180 billion pounds, 16 billion pounds more than the OBR had predicted in November.

“Our current estimate is that the latest lockdown will ‘cost’ around 16 billion pounds in terms of additional fiscal support,” said RBC economist Cathal Kennedy.

He cited the fact that more workers are now furloughed than the OBR had assumed in November, as well as expanded support for self-employed people and business grants announced in January.

In addition to the budget deficit, the government must also refinance 79.3 billion pounds of gilts due to mature in 2021/22.

As in the current year, much of the issuance will be soaked up by the Bank of England’s asset-purchase programme, which is due to buy around 100 billion pounds of government debt during the next financial year.

The poll suggested the government will finance borrowing almost entirely through gilts in the next financial year, rather than additional issuance of T-bills or via the government’s retail investment arm.

The DMO is likely to ramp up its issuance of inflation-linked gilts in 2021/22 to around 14% of the total, compared with 7% in the current financial year, the poll showed.

The DMO reined in sales of index-linked gilts through most of 2020 due to uncertainty caused by a review into the future of the retail prices index measure of inflation, which is used to price the bonds.

“Given pent-up demand, we think that this target is achievable,” said Deutsche Bank analysts Sanjay Raja and Panos Giannopoulos.

The dealers did not expect much change in the split between short, medium and long-dated gilts. Britain already has a longer average maturity for its debt than any other major economy, but the recent jump in global bond yields has prompted some commentators to say the DMO should do more to lock in low rates.

The government has also said it will issue the first “green gilts” – bonds to finance environmentally friendly projects – in 2021/22. Most respondents expect one or two bonds to be issued, of around 10 billion pounds in total.

(Reporting by Andy Bruce, editing by Larry King)

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