By Dave Chaplin is CEO of IR35 compliance solution IR35 Shield
We now know for certain that the Off-Payroll legislation will take effect from April 2021. Whether you’re a client, an agency or a contractor, it is vital that you take steps now to mitigate against the damaging impact and costs of the new rules so that all parties can continue to enjoy the mutual benefits of flexible working. Dave Chaplin is CEO of IR35 compliance solution IR35 Shield and author of IR35 & Off-Payroll Explained and here he explains how best to prepare.
Preparing for the reform – hiring firms
The Off-Payroll legislation requires hiring firms to determine whether thousands of contractors can continue to operate as they have for decades. The new rules require hirers to conduct an IR35 status assessment of contractors and inherit a degree of tax risk depending on whether they have taken reasonable care in reaching their conclusion. However, the impact of the Off-Payroll legislation for hiring firms stretches far beyond this.
Hirers will, under these new tax rules, be required to pay the employment taxes due on the earnings of ‘inside IR35’ contractors because agencies simply won’t have the financial resources to cover these extra taxes. When you consider that roughly 80% of the additional tax now due from an ‘inside IR35’ engagement under the Off-Payroll legislation is composed of employment taxes, this is a significant cost to bear.
Inability or failure to offer contracts on an outside IR35 basis also threatens:
- Contractors increasing their rates to counter their own tax loss
- Employment rights claims from contractors deemed ‘employed for tax purposes’
- Struggles to attract talent as contractors look elsewhere for outside IR35 contracts
Firms are also required by the legislation to demonstrate ‘reasonable care’ in reaching the conclusions in their status assessments, which is actually the easiest of the challenges to overcome.
Establish your firm’s IR35 risk
The first step is to acknowledge that Off-Payroll compliance will create an ongoing administrative overhead which your firm will have to plan for, whether status assessments are outsourced or conducted in-house.
The second step is to establish your firm’s IR35 risk by assessing your contingent workers.
The significant compliance challenge posed by the Off-Payroll legislation has necessitated innovation by way of automation. Firms tasked with assessing status and maintaining compliance for vast numbers of engagements need solutions that provide immediate assessments and assistance with the more trivial tasks.
When considering online solutions, bear in mind:
- Are the Status Determination Statements (SDS) detailed and comprehensive?
- Does the solution continue to monitor ‘outside IR35’ engagements throughout the contract for added protection?
- Is the service insurance-backed?
- Does the provider have demonstrable expertise in IR35 and employment status case law?
- Are the solution’s assessments demonstrably consistent with historical IR35 tribunal outcomes?
- Can assessments be instantly turned around?
- Can the solution provide real-time tax calculations to enable hirers and agencies to understand their impact?
- Does the solution make evidence gathering easier?
It is important to establish the credentials of any provider. Almost overnight, a new market for IR35 expertise has sprung up, populated by many unqualified providers without the essential pedigree of legal expertise required.
The importance of enlisting a quality compliance solution or service provider can’t be underestimated. Remember, to gain access to the best contracting talent, you will need to engage contractors on an outside IR35 basis. It’s imperative that any chosen provider doesn’t present a risk to your organisation.
Create contracts and working arrangements that mitigate IR35 risk
Once you have established the greatest risk factors threatening the outside IR35 status of your contractors, these need to be addressed in the contracts and working arrangements. Mitigating these risks reduces the chances of contractors withdrawing from a proposed contract over IR35 status while further minimising your risk of tax liability.
The working arrangements must reflect the written contract and reality. Past tribunal cases have exposed sham contracts, the unrealistic clauses in which are often referred to as ‘window dressing’. If an engagement is firmly caught by IR35 and the proposed contractual amendments aren’t realistic in practice, you will have to accept that the position can’t be rectified.
At this stage, you will have addressed the assessment status, helping to fulfil the ‘reasonable care’ requirement while mitigating your tax liability risk if HMRC investigates. However, for stronger protection, make sure the provider you work with can offer access to insurance policies for ‘outside IR35’ determinations.
Watertight IR35 compliance practices won’t necessarily deter HMRC from fishing via an investigation, so taking out appropriate insurance will ensure that any investigation costs and liabilities required to defend an investigation by HMRC are covered.
Ongoing monitoring and evidence gathering throughout the engagement are other crucial compliance processes. With the Off-Payroll legislation effectively dictating that IR35 status assessments be conducted prior to the beginning of the contract; parties must take measures to ensure that the working arrangement continues to reflect the original status determination.
Preparing for the reform – agencies
The preparation required by recruitment agencies is two-tiered. On one hand, as the intermediary, agencies will be expected to contribute to the IR35 compliance process and help negotiate compliant outside IR35 assignments. On the other, agencies will need to identify and implement processes to calculate, pay and report taxes for contractors deemed caught by the legislation.
Though hiring firms are ultimately tasked with assessing the IR35 status of their contractors, they will rely on recruitment agencies to help develop a solution. The input of agencies into this process is especially important, given most engagements consist of two contracts, both of which the agency is involved in – the upper-level contract between the hirer and agency and the lower-level contract between the agency and contractor.
Assist in addressing IR35 risk
Though it is ultimately the hiring firm that decides the IR35 compliance processes to be applied, they may be open to recommendations. The hirer will generally have no prior experience of IR35 and will be relying heavily on the agency to help complete any negotiations. Though they wouldn’t be considered IR35 experts by any means, most recruiters will have handled requests from contractors to make IR35-friendly alterations to arrangements in the past, and so will have some degree of understanding.
All parties stand the best chance of securing a legitimately ‘outside IR35’ arrangement where there is cooperation and clarity throughout the supply chain, and where hirer, agency and contractor are all involved.
Protect yourself with insurance
Though the hirer is responsible for determining the contractor’s IR35 status, agencies face the primary tax liability risk in the event that HMRC challenges an assessment – that is unless the hiring firm has failed to take ‘reasonable care’ when conducting the status assessment. In the public sector, fears over tax liability risk left many agencies reluctant to engage contractors outside of IR35.
However, this is an unhelpful approach which benefits no one. In any case, agencies needn’t be concerned provided they have assisted in ensuring that the necessary measures have been taken to accurately assess IR35. Agencies can gain another layer of protection by securing tax investigation insurance, which provides the expertise and costs necessary to mount a strong defence in the event of an HMRC investigation.
Agencies suffer disproportionately from the Off-Payroll legislation and the issue of administrative costs is probably the most difficult to tackle fairly, which makes it all the more important that agencies play their part in negotiating legitimate outside IR35 arrangements.
Renegotiate margins to accommodate employment taxes
Finally, agencies will also have to consider the cost of employment taxes on fees paid to ‘inside IR35’ contractors and work out with the hiring firm how these are going to be accommodated. This is another liability which really shouldn’t rest with the agency. Being the party that deemed the contractor ‘employed for tax purposes’, the hirer is for all intents and purposes the ‘deemed employer’.
Nonetheless, the legislation dictates that the agency is ultimately liable. As a reminder, employment taxes consist of employer’s NICs (13.8%) and the Apprenticeship Levy (0.5%). This sum is due on top of the contract fee. This is a rather unreasonable cost for a recruitment agency to pay and will therefore need to be sourced elsewhere.
With the rate the agency charges being fixed, one option is to reduce the pay rate being quoted to the contractor. Hirers will need to understand that paying by offering a lower pay rate than before, they are unlikely to be able to attract the same calibre of worker.
The alternative is to increase the rate charged to the hirer so that they at least contribute towards this cost. This could prove awkward, and you will no doubt encounter hiring firms that are reluctant to pay more for what they see as the same resource.
Ultimately, hirers that wish to hire contractors and treat them like employees will need to accept the accompanying additional cost burden.
Preparing for the reform – contractors
Although contractors have few statutory responsibilities when it comes to the Off-Payroll legislation, choosing to take preparatory steps will impact on whether you can continue operating on an outside IR35 basis beyond April 2021. There is no tax risk for the contractor under the new rules, provided they haven’t committed fraudulent activity, but to secure an outside IR35 engagement you must play an active role in the compliance process.
The immediate threat that the Off-Payroll legislation imposes on hirers and agencies is the chance of being investigated by HMRC, and possible tax liability risk. As the public sector reforms have shown, this can prove very effective in seeing parties taking non-compliant, evasive action by conducting and facilitating blanket status assessments, so all contractors are deemed ‘inside IR35’ by default.
As a contractor, it’s your job to help prevent this, and there are plenty of reasons for the hirer and agency to fulfil their compliance requirements. The first of which is the faact that taking ‘reasonable care’ is the necessary requirement for hiring firms to rid themselves of any tax risk. In an Off-Payroll context, this essentially means taking care to ensure that you have arrived at a correct status determination. Contractors need to make everyone realise that. The message is clear – start talking to hirers now.
The Psychology Behind a Strong Security Culture in the Financial Sector
By Javvad Malik, Security Awareness Advocate at KnowBe4
Banks and financial industries are quite literally where the money is, positioning them as prominent targets for cybercriminals worldwide. Unfortunately, regardless of investments made in the latest technologies, the Achilles heel of these institutions is their employees. Often times, a human blunder is found to be a contributing factor of a security breach, if not the direct source. Indeed, in the 2020 Verizon Data Breach Investigations Report, miscellaneous errors were found vying closely with web application attacks for the top cause of breaches affecting the financial and insurance sector. A secretary may forward an email to the wrong recipient or a system administrator may misconfigure firewall settings. Perhaps, a user clicks on a malicious link. Whatever the case, the outcome is equally dire.
Having grown acutely aware of the role that people play in cybersecurity, business leaders are scrambling to establish a strong security culture within their own organisations. In fact, for many leaders across the globe, realising a strong security culture is of increasing importance, not solely for fear of a breach, but as fundamental to the overall success of their organisations – be it to create customer trust or enhance brand value. Yet, the term lacks a universal definition, and its interpretation varies depending on the individual. In one survey of 1,161 IT decision makers, 758 unique definitions were offered, falling into five distinct categories. While all important, these categories taken apart only feature one aspect of the wider notion of security culture.
With an incomplete understanding of the term, many organisations find themselves inadvertently overconfident in their actual capabilities to fend off cyberthreats. This speaks to the importance of building a single, clear and common definition from which organisations can learn from one another, benchmark their standing and construct a comprehensive security programme.
Defining Security Culture: The Seven Dimensions
In an effort to measure security culture through an objective, scientific method, the term can be broken down into seven key dimensions:
- Attitudes: Formed over time and through experiences, attitudes are learned opinions reflecting the preferences an individual has in favour or against security protocols and issues.
- Behaviours: The physical actions and decisions that employees make which impact the security of an organisation.
- Cognition: The understanding, knowledge and awareness of security threats and issues.
- Communication: Channels adopted to share relevant security-related information in a timely manner, while encouraging and supporting employees as they tackle security issues.
- Compliance: Written security policies and the extent that employees adhere to them.
- Norms: Unwritten rules of conduct in an organisation.
- Responsibilities: The extent to which employees recognise their role in sustaining or endangering their company’s security.
All of these dimensions are inextricably interlinked; should one falter so too would the others.
The Bearing of Banks and Financial Institutions
Collecting data from over 120,000 employees in 1,107 organisations across 24 countries, KnowBe4’s ‘Security Culture Report 2020’ found that the banking and financial sectors were among the best performers on the security culture front, with a score of 76 out of a 100. This comes as no surprise seeing as they manage highly confidential data and have thus adopted a long tradition of risk management as well as extensive regulatory oversight.
Indeed, the security culture posture is reflected in the sector’s well-oiled communication channels. As cyberthreats constantly and rapidly evolve, it is crucial that effective communication processes are implemented. This allows employees to receive accurate and relevant information with ease; having an impact on the organisation’s ability to prevent as well as respond to a security breach. In IBM’s 2020 Cost of a Data Breach study, the average reported response time to detect a data breach is 207 days with an additional 73 days to resolve the situation. This is in comparison to the financial industry’s 177 and 56 days.
Moreover, with better communication follows better attitude – both banking and financial services scored 80 and 79 in this department, respectively. Good communication is integral to facilitating collaboration between departments and offering a reminder that security is not achieved solely within the IT department; rather, it is a team effort. It is also a means of boosting morale and inspiring greater employee engagement. As earlier mentioned, attitudes are evaluations, or learned opinions. Therefore, by keeping employees informed as well as motivated, they are more likely to view security best practices favourably, adopting them voluntarily.
Predictably, the industry ticks the box on compliance as well. The hefty fines issued by the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) in the past year alone, including Capital One’s $80 million penalty, probably play a part in keeping financial institutions on their toes.
Nevertheless, there continues to be room for improvement. As it stands, the overall score of 76 is within the ‘moderate’ classification, falling a long way short of the desired 90-100 range. So, what needs fixing?
Towards Achieving Excellence
There is often the misconception that banks and financial institutions are well-versed in security-related information due to their extensive exposure to the cyber domain. However, as the cognition score demonstrates, this is not the case – dawdling in the low 70s. This illustrates an urgent need for improved security awareness programmes within the sector. More importantly, employees should be trained to understand how this knowledge is applied. This can be achieved through practical exercises such as simulated phishing, for example. In addition, training should be tailored to the learning styles as well as the needs of each individual. In other words, a bank clerk would need a completely different curriculum to IT staff working on the backend of servers.
By building on cognition, financial institutions can instigate a sense of responsibility among employees as they begin to recognise the impact that their behaviour might have on the company. In cybersecurity, success is achieved when breaches are avoided. In a way, this negative result removes the incentive that typically keeps employees engaged with an outcome. Training methods need to take this into consideration.
Then there are norms and behaviours, found to have strong correlations with one another. Norms are the compass from which individuals refer to when making decisions and negotiating everyday activities. The key is recognising that norms have two facets, one social and the other personal. The former is informed by social interactions, while the latter is grounded in the individual’s values. For instance, an accountant may connect to the VPN when working outside of the office to avoid disciplinary measures, as opposed to believing it is the right thing to do. Organisations should aim to internalise norms to generate consistent adherence to best practices irrespective of any immediate external pressures. When these norms improve, behavioural changes will reform in tandem.
Building a robust security culture is no easy task. However, the unrelenting efforts of cybercriminals to infiltrate our systems obliges us to press on. While financial institutions are leading the way for other industries, much still needs to be done. Fortunately, every step counts -every improvement made in one dimension has a domino effect in others.
Has lockdown marked the end of cash as we know it?
By James Booth, VP of Payment Partnerships EMEA, PPRO
Since the start of the pandemic, businesses around the world have drastically changed their operations to protect employees and customers. One significant shift has been the discouragement of the use of cash in favour of digital and contactless payment methods. On the surface, moving away from cash seems like the safe, obvious thing to do to curb the spread of the virus. But, the idea of being propelled towards an innovative, digital-first, cashless society is also compelling.
Has cashless gone viral?
Recent months have forced the world online, leading to a surge in e-commerce with UK online sales seeing a rise of 168% in May and steady growth ever since. In fact, PPRO’s transaction engine, has seen online purchases across the globe increase dramatically in 2020: purchases of women’s clothing are up 311%, food and beverage by 285%, and healthcare and cosmetics by 160%.
Alongside a shift to online shopping, a recent report revealed 7.4 million in the UK are now living an almost cashless life – claiming changing payment habits has left Britons better prepared for life in lockdown. In fact, according to recent research from PPRO, 45% of UK consumers think cash will be a thing of the past in just five years. And this UK figure reflects a global trend. For example, 46% of Americans have turned to cashless payments in the wake of COVID-19. And in Italy, the volume of cashless transactions has skyrocketed by more than 80%.
More choice than ever before
Whilst the pandemic and restrictions surrounding cash have certainly accelerated the UK towards a cashless society, the proliferation of local payment methods (LPMs) in the UK, such as PayPal, Klarna and digital wallets, have also been a key driver. Today, 31% of UK consumers report they are confident using mobile wallets, such as Apple Pay. Those in Generation Z are particularly keen, with 68% expressing confidence using them.
As LPM usage continues to accelerate, the use of credit and debit cards are likely to decline in the coming years. Whilst older generations show an affinity with plastic, younger consumers feel less secure around its usage. 96% of Baby Boomers and Generation X confirmed they feel confident using credit/debit cards, compared to just 75% of Generation Z.
Does social distancing mean financial exclusion?
As we hurtle into a digital age, leaving cash in the rearview, there are ramifications of going completely cashless to consider. We must take into consideration how removing cash could disenfranchise over a quarter of our society; 26% of the global population doesn’t have a traditional bank account. Across Latin America, 38% of shoppers are unbanked, and nearly 1 in 5 online transactions are completed with cash. While in Africa and the Middle East, only 50% of consumers are banked in the traditional sense, and 12% have access to a credit card. Even here in the UK, approximately 1.3 million UK adults are classed as unbanked, exposing the large number of consumers affected by any ban on cash.
Even when shopping online – many consumers rely on cash-based payments. At the checkout page, consumers are provided with a barcode for their order. They take this barcode (either printed or on their mobile device) to a local convenience store or bank and pay in cash. At that point, the goods are shipped.
There are also older generations to consider. Following the closure of one in eight banks and cashpoints during Coronavirus, the government faced calls to act swiftly to protect access to cash, as pensioners struggled to access their savings. Despite the direction society is headed, there are a significant number of older people that still rely on cash – they have grown up using it. With an estimated two million people in the UK relying on cash for day to day spending, it is important that it does not disappear in its entirety.
Supporting the transition away from cash
Cashless protocols not only restrict access to goods and services for consumers but also limit revenue opportunity for merchants. While 2020 has provided the global economy with one great reason to reduce the acceptance of cash, the payments industry has billions of reasons to offer multiple options that cater to the needs of every kind of shopper around the world.
Whilst it seems younger generations are driving LPM adoption, it is important that older generations aren’t forgotten. If online shops fail to offer a variety of preferred payment methods, consumers will not hesitate to shop elsewhere. With 44% of consumers reporting they would stop a purchase online if their favourite payment method wasn’t available – this is something merchants need to address to attract and retain loyal customers.
UnionPay increases online acceptance across Europe and worldwide with Online Travel Agencies
- UnionPay International today announces that two of Europe’s leading travel companies, Logitravel and Destinia, have started accepting UnionPay.
- This acceptance will enable users of the groups’ travel websites to make purchases using UnionPay payment methods.
The acceptance partnerships between the OTAs and UnionPay began in July 2020 for customers across 13 European countries and another 90 countries and regions worldwide. The European countries covered by the agreements include the UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Switzerland, Hungary and Ireland. The brands covered by these acceptances include Logitravel.com and Destinia.com which together deliver more than 8.5 million worldwide travel bookings each year covering flights, hotels, holidays, car hire and other experiences.
With over 8.4 billion cards issued in 61 countries and regions worldwide, UnionPay has the world’s largest cardholder base and is the preferred payment brand for many Chinese and Asian expatriates and students based in Europe, as well as an increasing number of global customers. These cardholders are also particularly attractive to the two OTAs. Despite the impact of Covid-19, Logitravel and Destinia expect to see the demand for travel across the European continent as well as that between Europe and Asia return to growth in the coming years. They are now placing significant focus on offering more payment options and smoother payment services to meet this demand.
The partnerships incorporate UnionPay’s ExpressPay and SecurePlus technology, which will ensure seamless transactions for the customers, contained within a single process through the relevant websites. UnionPay’s technology also provides for the requirement to authenticate transactions under the EU regulation Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) ensuring that sites will be compliant as soon as the relevant countries apply the requirements.
Wei Zhihong, UnionPay International’s Market Director, said: “This is a major partnership with two of Europe’s leading online travel companies. Logitravel and Destinia are brands which have been at the forefront of e-commerce for many years and we are very excited to be working with them to extend their reach to new audiences. This highlights the work that we have carried out in ensuring that our technology provides effective solutions for the biggest e-commerce sites both in Europe and around the world. We look forward to announcing many more similar agreements in the near future.”
Jesús Pons, Chief Financial Officer at Logitravel Group said: “UnionPay has always been on our radar, and since travel has become a crucial part of its development, Logitravel felt it important to develop this important partnership. It really was an obvious decision for Logitravel since both companies share a passion for e-commerce and emphasising the payment experience for their customers.”
Ricardo Fernández, Managing Director at Destinia Group said: “We believe that this is the beginning of a really strong relationship. Our discussions with UnionPay in reaching this partnership have demonstrated their understanding of the needs of major online merchants and their ability to deliver the highest quality systems. We look forward to working together on further partnership as we move forward.”
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