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Data Unions, fisherfolk and DeFi

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Data Unions, fisherfolk and DeFi 1

By Ruby Short, Streamr

In the fintech world it seems every month there’s a new trend or terminology to get acquainted with. From just learning about cryptocurrency a few years ago, to the crazy boom markets of 2017-18, the market has now moved on to DeFi, or Decentralised Finance to those less in the know.

It’s a trend which is gathering momentum, too – $275m of crypto collateral was invested in the DeFi economy in early 2019, but by February of this year it hit $1 billion, and by the end of July this number had risen to $4 billion.

According to crypto exchange Binance, DeFi refers to “a movement that aims to create an open-source, permissionless and transparent financial service ecosystem that is available to everyone and operates without any central authority.” Essentially it gives full asset control to those who use it, whether this is through peer-to-peer models or DeFi applications.

These apps, known as DApps, run on a blockchain network meaning they’re not controlled by a single authority. And as they are also Open Source, they are publicly available – characteristics that make transactions quicker, more affordable and more efficient than their centralised counterparts, where data is stored on servers managed by one authority (think traditional banks).

So why is DeFi getting so much attention?

DeFi is exciting for many because it gives more people more control over their money. Where much of the financial sector is traditionally centralised it inherits bias, thus restricting many people from their funds and what they can do with it.

With this approach, anyone can make investments or get into trading much more easily, and, most importantly, keep control in the hands of the user and not large corporations.

One of the preliminary benefits of this control is the improved visibility we gain over our financial data. In fact, any data we produce in general, whether online or through smart devices is predominantly controlled by giant centralised platforms such as Google and Facebook. In many cases users are unaware of where this is being sold on, or at least have been up until now.

As with DeFi and DApps, a way to decentralise this control has been introduced – in the form of Data Unions. A relatively new concept, this is a framework that enables individuals to bundle together their real-time data with others to create valuable insights which can be sold on, offering each the chance to earn revenue. It is helping businesses and individuals realise the value of the information they produce.

How does it work?

Our data on its own holds little value, but once bundled with multiple data sets from other people and sources and combined in a Data Union, it becomes an attractive set of insights to buyers who can use it to improve their market knowledge, product or service.

Data is shared through an app on the device or object via Streamr’s Data Union framework, a toolbox, which any developer or company can integrate into their existing products. It also allows individuals to choose which particular data types they share and monetise, and which they keep private.

This information then passes, encrypted, through the Streamr Network, to the Data Union where it’s bundled with others’ data for sale on the Marketplace – a process called crowdselling, which has the potential to generate unique data sets by incentivising trade directly from data producers.

What’s more, Data Unions can be set up to capture any form of data. For instance, a music streaming company could commission their own app where users could sell their listening and genre habits paired with their demographic info.

What has this got to do with DeFi?

Data Unions can help provide a means of DeFi direct to the people that need it most.

To break this down, a Data Union is beneficial because it enables any internet user to be paid for their data, which is unlike any data tax that has been proposed by many politicians. And, the advantage of a DeFi solution is that anyone can get paid from it because the finances are no longer dependent on their jurisdiction, but on which products they are using. Putting these together can have endless benefits.

We’re already seeing this happen, with a framework being used to improve the lives of financially marginalised groups. Tracey is a blockchain enabled Data Union working in partnership with WWF.

The application incentivises Filipino fisherfolk to record their catch and trade data digitally through direct data monetisation via the Streamr Marketplace. This data makes the first mile of their seafood products through the supply chain, traceable. With regional fish stocks declining, accurate catch yield data is a desirable insight for third party members such as retailers and final buyers.

The benefits of this model are twofold. Many fisherfolk in the Philippines are unbanked, meaning they don’t have a bank account. Trading this data gives them access to finance and loans previously out of reach, changing them and their family’s livelihoods. It also enables a self-sustaining ecosystem that captures accurate traceability data and helps these areas monitor their overfishing levels for more sustainable fishing.

What does this mean for us for the future?

We’re seeing a lot of momentum building around all forms of online decentralization,and the potential is huge. Over the coming years we will see these systems become ever more integrated into the existing internet stack, which will profoundly impact our possibilities online. Soon, it will become normal to take part in the internet’s data economy.

We see internet users becoming members of several Data Unions and have a range of different options to choose from that best suits them and their data sets. Personal data monetisation will no longer be a privacy issue we’re all suffering under, but rather a question of whether we want to sell our data or not. Users will have the freedom to choose for themselves if they want to sell their data or not and ethical data sharing will become the norm.

Finance

Sterling gets vaccine boost to hit 8-month high vs euro

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Sterling gets vaccine boost to hit 8-month high vs euro 2

By Joice Alves

(Reuters) – Sterling rose to a fresh eight-month high against the euro on Wednesday as Britain’s faster COVID-19 vaccine rollout than in the European Union offered support to the pound.

Although Britain’s deaths from the coronavirus pandemic passed 100,000 on Tuesday, its faster initial vaccine rollout has fuelled hopes for economic recovery.

Sterling was up 0.3% at 88.28 pence at 1049 GMT, after hitting a fresh eight-month high of against the single market currency.

Graphic: Sterling 27 Jan, https://fingfx.thomsonreuters.com/gfx/mkt/jbyvrnbbbve/Sterling%2027%20Jan.png

Geoffrey Yu, senior EMEA market strategist at BNY Mellon, said “the general theme of UK doing well with vaccinations is playing a role” in lifting the pound, which is “not expensive and not over-owned yet”.

On the other hand, “the euro is clearly being undermined by ongoing concerns over vaccine rollout speed and supply,” Yu added.

Versus the greenback, sterling was flat at $1.3736, not far off a May 2018 high of $1.3759 touched earlier.

Hopes for a large U.S. fiscal stimulus package has fuelled risk sentiment in markets in recent weeks, benefiting sterling. Market participants are expecting Federal Reserve Chair Jerome Powell to renew a commitment to ultra-easy policy.

“It’s FOMC today so the adjustment in dollar positions may be playing a role as well,” Yu said.

As Britain left the bloc in December, the City of London said the capital’s loss of some financial business due to Brexit has not been catastrophic and it will thrive even if the European Union “irrationally” blocks access.

“For now Sterling continues to trade more on hope, vaccines, than current reality,” said Jeremy Stretch, head of G10 FX Strategy at CIBC Capital Markets.

(Reporting by Joice Alves in VARESE, Italy. Editing by Alexander Smith and Andrew Cawthorne)

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Dollar advances as investors shy away from risk

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Dollar advances as investors shy away from risk 3

By Saqib Iqbal Ahmed

NEW YORK (Reuters) – The dollar edged higher against a basket of currencies on Monday, as a burst of volatility in stock markets around the globe sapped investors’ appetite for riskier currencies.

Concerns over the timing and size of additional U.S. fiscal stimulus sent major U.S. stock indexes briefly more than 1% lower before they recovered to trade little changed on the day.

The sharp move in stock markets soured FX traders’ appetite for risk, Karl Schamotta, chief market strategist at Cambridge Global Payments in Toronto, said.

“Your high beta currencies – currencies that are highly correlated with equity markets and global risk appetites – are tumbling in synchrony with equity indexes,” Schamotta said.

Market sentiment turned more cautious at the end of last week as European economic data showed that lockdown restrictions to limit the spread of the coronavirus hurt business activity.

The U.S. Dollar Currency Index was 0.19% higher at 90.396, after rising as high as 90.523, its strongest since Jan. 20.

The euro was down around 0.28% against the dollar. German business morale slumped to a six-month low in January as a second wave of COVID-19 halted a recovery in Europe’s largest economy, which will stagnate in the first quarter, the Ifo economic institute said on Monday.

The Australian dollar – seen as a liquid proxy for risk – was 0.16% lower against the dollar.

U.S. stocks have scaled new highs in recent sessions even as concerns about the pandemic-hit economy remain. Investors are trying to gauge whether officials in U.S. President Joe Biden’s administration could head off Republican concerns that his $1.9 trillion pandemic relief proposal was too expensive.

Despite the dollar’s recent rebound – the dollar index is up about 1.3% since early January – analysts expect a broad dollar decline during 2021. The net speculative short position on the dollar grew to its largest in 10 years in the week to Jan. 19, according to weekly futures data from CFTC released on Friday.

The U.S. Federal Reserve meets on Wednesday and Chair Jerome Powell is expected to signal that he has no plans to wind back the Fed’s massive stimulus any time soon – news which could push the dollar down further.

Sterling strengthened on Monday against the weaker euro as Britain’s COVID-19 vaccine rollout over the weekend offered support to the British currency.

(Reporting by Saqib Iqbal Ahmed; Editing by Andrea Ricci and Sonya Hepinstall)

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London and New York financial services treated the same, EU says

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London and New York financial services treated the same, EU says 4

By Huw Jones

LONDON (Reuters) – An EU forum for discussing financial services with Britain will be similar to what the United States has, and it must be in place before market access will be considered, the bloc’s financial services chief said on Monday.

Britain’s Brexit trade deal with the EU from Jan. 1 does not cover financial services, leaving its City of London financial center largely cut off from the EU.

Both sides are committed to creating a forum for financial regulatory cooperation by March, but talks have not started yet, the EU financial services commissioner told the European Parliament.

“What we envisage for this framework is similar to what we have with the United States, a voluntary structure to compare regulatory initiatives, exchange views on international developments and discuss equivalence related issues,” Mairead McGuinness told the European Parliament.

U.S. and EU regulators took about four years just to agree on rules on cross-border derivatives.

Trading in euro shares has already left London, along with a chunk in swaps trading. That questions the value of any future EU access given that many banks and trading platforms from the UK have opened units in the bloc.

McGuinness said regulatory cooperation will not be about restoring market access that Britain has lost, nor will it constrain the EU’s unilateral equivalence process.

Equivalence refers to EU access when Brussels deems a non-EU country’s rules are similar enough to the bloc’s.

“Once we agree on our working arrangements, we can turn to resuming our unilateral equivalence assessments… using the same criteria as with all third countries, including anti-money laundering and taxation cooperation,” she said.

Britain plans to amend some EU rules.

“The United Kingdom intention to diverge requires a case-by-case discussion in each area. Equivalence and divergence are polar opposites,” McGuinness said.

“I am optimistic that over time, through cooperation and trust, we will build a stable and balanced relationship with our UK friends.”

(Reporting by Huw Jones; Editing by Dan Grebler)

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